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Video: Diseases And Pests Of Strawberries
It is characterized by a depressed state, the bushes are dried, with withered leaves. On the cut of the rhizome there is a brown mass with the smell of hydrogen sulfide. The causative agent of the disease is a soil fungus. Diseased plants become clearly visible during the budding period - harvesting. Old marginal leaves spread out on the soil surface, turn brown and wither, young central leaves become small, dull, yellowish. The growth of the bush stops, later the bush dies. The fungus fills the vessels of the roots. The infection is transmitted from diseased uterine bushes along the way. Through the soil. The fungus, in addition to strawberries, affects potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, raspberries, gooseberries, and fruit trees.
Control measures: removal and destruction of affected plants along with decease. Do not place strawberries after potatoes and other crops affected by pathogens. Use only healthy planting material.
Gray rot of strawberries
The gray rot of strawberries overtakes in the midst of harvesting. In shaded and windproof areas, infection is especially harmful.
Proceeding from this, the control measures: planting in well-lit and ventilated areas, removing old dried leaves and lightening the bush in spring; timely removal and burning of diseased berries; regular berry picking; mulching the soil, dusting it with ash and fluffy lime in fairly large quantities - 8-9 kg per 100 square meters, this is 15-20 g for each bush.
The first dusting is at the beginning of the setting of the berries, the second is at the beginning of their ripening. Spraying the soil with potassium (100 g per 10 l of water), infusion of ash (100-200 g per 10 l of water). Planting onions between strawberry bushes (1 onion per 4 strawberry bushes). Spraying gray strawberries (50-100 g per 10 liters of water). Spraying plants with a nitrafen solution before growth begins at a temperature not lower than 2-5 ° C, with a foundationol solution (10 g per 10 l of water) before flowering and after harvesting, a bayleton solution (12 g per 10 l of water).
Strawberry powdery mildew
Powdery mildew of strawberries - a great lover of leaves and berries, covering everything with a white bloom, is restrained by the normal density of planting, watering, and fertilization.
Control measures: systematic removal of affected plant parts. Spraying before flowering and after harvesting with colloidal sulfur 70% - 30 g, soda ash - 50 g, ash liquor.
Sometimes it is white, brown, brown. The treatment is carried out with a solution of Bordeaux liquid (1%).
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A small insect, up to 10 mm in length, capable of flying and jumping, its color is variegated, from yellow to black. The eggs are yellow-orange. The larva is greenish yellow. Eggs overwinter in the tissues of leaf petioles and other herbaceous plants. The larva, which is immersed in a salivary foamy liquid, is harmful; it sucks sap and causes wrinkling of leaves, malformation or underdevelopment of the ovary. Most often it hurts in waterlogged areas.
Control measures: during the growing season, moderate watering and systematic removal of weeds. During the harvest period, spraying with infusions of garlic, yarrow or laundry soap (200-400 g per 10 l of water), fresh potato tops (1.2 kg) is carried out, after harvesting, dusting with fluff lime or ash (30 g per bush) is applied, for severe infection - spraying with karbofos.
Very small insect, oblong-oval, glassy-yellowish; hibernates at the base of leaf petioles. Damages leaves, especially young, semi-expanded ones, sucking juice out of them. As a result, the leaves become wrinkled, yellowish, oily; the berries become smaller.
Control measures: during planting - planting seedlings not infected with ticks. Before planting - disinfection of seedlings by heating in water at a temperature of 45 ° C for 15 minutes; then the seedlings are washed in cold water and dried in the shade.
During the period of inflorescence extension, spraying with onion husk infusion is carried out (after which the plantation is covered with a film for several hours) 3 times with an interval of 4-5 days. During the growing season - spraying with colloidal sulfur or wettable sulfur powder (70 g per 10 l of water) at an air temperature of 16 ° C and above.
Adults and larvae have an elongated, spindle-shaped body covered with light watery mucus. The larva harms, eating the pulp in the fruits, and sometimes destroys them completely, eats out the leaf tissue, forming holes in them. They feed mainly at night. In wet years, they do the most harm.
Control measures: during the growing season, it is necessary to thin out thickened plantings and destroy weeds. Catching slugs, which are taken under wet rags, boards, burdock leaves, etc.; in the morning they are collected and destroyed. Dusting the row spacing with lime (25 g / m2), or superphosphate (30 g / m2), or mustard powder (in dry weather), or iron vitriol mixed with dust, is carried out in the evening twice with an interval of 30 minutes. After harvesting, metaldehyde is laid out in the aisles and on the paths.
Strawberry raspberry weevil
Small beetle up to 3 mm long, grayish-black with a long proboscis. Hibernates on the soil surface under fallen leaves and other plant debris. In spring it feeds on young leaves. It is very gluttonous: getting on young leaves, it eats holes, drastically disrupting the metabolism of the plant. Beetles cause special harm to strawberries before the flowers appear, during this period the female lays eggs in unblown buds. Damages strawberry and raspberry buds. The beetle lays eggs in buds and gnaws at the peduncle, as a result the buds hang and dry out. In some years, up to 40 percent or more of the buds are damaged.
Control measures: collection and destruction of damaged buds on strawberries and raspberries during bud formation and at the beginning of flowering. It can be applied during the period of bud formation by spraying with mustard infusion (200 g per 10 l of water). In the case of a strong spread of the beetle, five to six days before flowering, spraying is carried out with a 10% solution of karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water). You can use onion infusions (pour 200 g of onion husks with warm water and leave for 4-5 days), spray with infusion 3 times after 5 days, the first one - at the time of the peduncles protruding. Infusion of garlic (200-300 g through a meat grinder, pour 10 liters of water and insist for one day) is sprayed twice: the first time - at the time of the appearance of inflorescences, the second - before flowering. Coniferous concentrate has a good effect. Tar, turpentine, naphthalene, wormwood scare away the weevil.
The pest causes enormous damage to plants. The nematoda eats everything that is on the plant, from leaves, flowers and ending with berries. When damaged by a nematode, the leaves, exhausted to the limit, acquire a red tint, chlorophyll is gradually destroyed in the petioles, and they become purple-scarlet and cannot provide the dying leaves with the required amount of nutrients. Severely damaged strawberry plants are easy to distinguish during flowering, during this period the peduncles grow poorly and do not reach the desired height, and small flowers form on the shortened peduncles. Gradually, the entire rosette decreases in size, as if shrinking.
The main measures to combat nematodes are preventive: the use of healthy planting material, the seedlings are heat-treated at 45 ° C for 15 minutes. The infected plants are burned. Strawberries should not be grown in the same place for many years, alternating crops heals the land and reduces the likelihood of nematode spread. Weed control, high agricultural background, regular fertilizing with mineral fertilizers - all this strengthens plants and their immunity.
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Strawberry weed pests
The plant has only male flowers. With the end of flowering, they fade, as if "shut their eyes". The berries are not tied. But the weed forms a large number of whiskers.
The leaves are dark green with raised edges. The berries are dark red, very small, with compacted seeds.
Bushes are highly winter-hardy, densely leafy. Leaves are thin, light green, matte, elongated. The berries are small, light red, round, with a pronounced neck, deeply depressed seeds and pink, sour, friable pulp. They are placed inside the bush. The formation is strong.
The bush forms a large number of whiskers, displacing nearby plants. Virtually no harvest. In some years on the bush there are one or two peduncles with relatively large dark red irregularly shaped berries.
Highly cultivated and productive strawberry bushes form a little mustache: there is not enough strength for more. But all these "blind man's buffs" that do not give flowers, and "oak trees" that do not throw out peduncles, and therefore, without berries, give all their strength to formation, sometimes one luxurious bakhmutka bush can give more than a thousand mustaches, and what! Moreover, they cleverly disguise themselves as a cultivar. Therefore, it is more convenient to cull and remove plants during the flowering period. Otherwise, these invaders will make strawberry lawn out of the garden.
During the ripening of the berries, the pendant and bakhmutka are clearly visible, which do not form berries. When they are found, the bush is dug out together with the rosettes, and very carefully, without breaking a single antenna. And only after repeated repeated checks can you get rid of these parasites. You need to chase them like reading your favorite detective story.
It is necessary to hang tags on productive bushes - and from them only take seedlings for new plantings. And to weeds - a method of relentless search.
Calendar of basic work with strawberries. Strawberry varieties
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