Table of contents:
- Plant care
- Loosening the soil
- Weeding and thinning
- Top dressing
- Protection from pests and diseases
- Plant protection methods
Video: Fight Against Diseases And Pests Of Carrots, Weeding And Thinning
It is advisable to mulch podzimny and early spring sowing of carrots with plastic wrap or non-woven translucent material. The temperature increased by 4-5 ° C and higher humidity of the soil and surface air under the mulching material contribute to the rapid emergence of seedlings, the growth of carrots and the acceleration of the formation of the crop.
Lutrasil can be kept on crops until the end of May, and the film should be removed from the garden as soon as shoots appear, otherwise the plants may burn under it.
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Loosening the soil
Careful care is required for carrot crops. Particular attention is paid to the control of crust and weeds. Before the emergence of seedlings, for the destruction of the soil crust, continuous loosening can be done to a depth of 3-4 cm. When sowing, the weeds are destroyed by loosening the row spacing until the emergence of carrots. This can be easily done by adding radish or lettuce seeds to the carrot seeds when sowing as a lighthouse crop. They sprout quickly and mark the rows. With the help of a hoe, weed shoots are cut. During the first loosening, up to 80% of weeds are destroyed. And clean, and without the use of herbicides!
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In order not to damage the young seedlings by the crust that has moved during loosening, it is advisable to water before loosening the beds and, as soon as the moisture is absorbed, loosen the soil to avoid the formation of a new crust and loss of water. To get rid of the tedious and time-consuming weeding of row spacings, loosening should be carried out often before the leaves close.
In other words, the aisles must be kept in a "black steam" state. In case of row sowing, up to 5-6 loosening is carried out over the summer. Moreover, on heavy soils, they first loosen by 4-6 cm, and later - to a depth of 10-12 cm.On light soils, when grown on ridges or ridges, loosening is carried out to a depth of 5-6 cm, since in these conditions air is better provided to roots. This work should be done in dry weather, then the cut weed shoots dry out quickly. In addition, loosening carried out in dry weather violates the capillarity of the soil and thereby contributes to the retention of moisture in it, therefore it is called "dry irrigation". Rain and watering compact the soil on the ridges, so on the second day after each rain or watering it is useful to carry out extraordinary loosening.
Weeding and thinning
Carrot seeds germinate slowly. Young plants also grow very slowly. Weeding is an important measure for caring for them. Some amateur gardeners sow carrot seeds randomly. In this case, weeding is carried out immediately after the emergence of carrots, when the plants are in the forks phase. When sowing randomly, loosening cannot be carried out (with the exception of loosening the gaps between ridges or ridges), therefore, weeds must be regularly destroyed.
What a hassle! During weeding, it is necessary to ensure that the roots are completely submerged in the ground, otherwise many root crops with a green head and a bitter taste are formed. You can make a slight podkuchivaniye of the crawled root crops so that they are all completely immersed in the soil. True, not all varieties have a green head, but only, as a rule, those where it is too large and protrudes strongly above the soil surface.
With timely loosening of row spacings, weeding is minimized. Practically by hand, weeds are destroyed in rows and on a narrow protective strip on both sides of the row.
The furrows between the ridges also need to be weed free. This is easy to do with a sharp hoe.
Along the way with weeding, no later than two weeks after germination, when the first true leaf appears, thickened carrot plants are thinned out. For the first time, leave a distance of 2-3 cm between them in a row. The second thinning is done about 40 days after the first, when the roots reach a diameter of 1.5 cm and can be used as early vegetables. Weakly leafy varieties (Parisian carotel, Nantes, etc.) are thinned a second time at a distance of 4-6 cm in a row, strongly leafy varieties (Chantenay) by 6-8 cm.
This distance in the row fully ensures the normal development of carrot root crops. However, it should be remembered that when pulling out root crops, the root system of neighboring plants is damaged and the soil dries up through the remaining depressions from the removed carrots, therefore, holes in the soil formed when pulling out root crops must be covered with earth in order to avoid moisture evaporation and damage to the remaining plants by a carrot fly. After thinning the carrot beds, water well.
The long-term practice of vegetable growers has shown that the sooner a breakthrough (thinning) begins, the better, since a two-week delay in this work reduces the yield by 15-20%, and a month's delay - by 60%. Thinning should not be neglected, as, as noted, carrots require a lot of light for normal development. This is especially important for the earliest crops. If, during thinning, a greater distance is left between the plants than indicated, the roots grow strongly, coarse and deform.
Being a relatively drought-resistant plant, carrots at the same time respond well to irrigation even in the Leningrad region. Irrigation makes it possible to increase the yield from 1 m from 2-3 kg to 7-9 kg. Also, the taste of carrots is significantly increased. Watering is not necessary often (which is sometimes abused by amateur gardeners), but thoroughly, in several steps, so that the moisture is gradually absorbed into the soil and reaches the root crops.
During the summer, 2-4 waterings are done in the evening. 2-3 buckets of water are poured onto 1 m2. After watering, as soon as the topsoil dries up, you should close the moisture. It is advisable to combine watering with top dressing. It is not recommended to use higher irrigation rates, since carrots are characterized by an increased need for soil aeration. It should be remembered that it does not tolerate stagnant water.
The yield of carrots is significantly increased due to top dressing. Carrots are fed 2-3 times over the summer. The first time this should be done when 2-3 true (not counting cotyledonous) leaves appear in carrots, as a rule, after thinning the seedlings. Top dressing can be made liquid (mineral salts are dissolved in water) or dry (fertilizers are scattered on the soil at a distance of 5-10 cm from plants to avoid burns). With sufficient water supply, it is advisable to use liquid dressings, as they are more useful and fast-acting. On a bucket of water take 25 g of ammonium nitrate or ammonium sulfate and 30 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride. One watering can is enough for 3-4 m2. After watering with a fertilizer solution, you need to spill the plants with clean water to avoid burns.
In the Non-Black Earth Zone, with dry feeding, 5-10 g of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate and 3-5 g of potassium chloride are introduced per 1 m2. You can add 10-15 g of complex fertilizer. After 20-25 days, feeding is repeated. For late varieties of carrots, 20 days after the second feeding, it is useful to give a third one, only without nitrogen fertilizers. Fertilization must be combined with loosening the soil. It is good to do top dressing after rain or pre-irrigation with clean water so that the fertilizer solution does not drain off the garden bed.
Protection from pests and diseases
In the first year of life, carrots are slightly affected by diseases in comparison with other vegetable plants. However, during the storage period of root crops, fungal, bacterial and viral diseases cause great damage. The most harmful diseases are dry black rot, phomosis, white rot and gray rot.
Black dry rot (Alternaria). During cultivation, brown spots with a dark, barely visible bloom appear on the leaves, spreading from the edges. During storage, dark, rounded, depressed spots, covered with a dark coating (from gray to black), form on root crops.
When the root crop is cut through the stain, the affected tissue of a coal-black color is visible, sharply limited from the healthy one.
Fomoz. When growing root crops, brown spots appear on the leaves of plants, starting at the edges, with a dark, inconspicuous bloom; on root crops there are gray or brown depressed spots or shallow transverse dark stripes. The cut shows a dry, affected tissue of a dark brown color. During the storage period of root crops, the affected tissue is destroyed, forming voids; often the spots are lined inside with a whitish mycelium with black sporulation.
White rot (sclerotinia). The disease manifests itself during storage. On root crops, a white, dense, flaky bloom with white (immature), then black large (up to 1-3 cm) sclerotia forms. Affected roots rot completely.
Gray rot (botrytis). During storage, a gray fluffy bloom with small (0.2-0.7 cm), black spore clusters appears on root crops. Affected roots rot.
Rhizoctonia or felt rot. On root crops, gray-lead spots appear with a brown or purple-brown felt bloom; the plaque gradually disappears, and the affected part of the root crop is covered with small black dots - sporulation of the fungus.
Powdery mildew. White powdery bloom and dark fruiting bodies of the fungus appear on the leaves.
Downy mildew. Yellow or brown spots with a gray bloom appear on the underside of the leaf.
Septoria. Spots appear on both sides of the leaf - from yellowish-green to brown, with numerous black fruiting bodies of the fungus.
Cercosporosis. On the leaves, spots of an oval or irregular shape are visible with brown tufts on the underside of the leaf.
Rust. On the underside of the leaf, yellow spots are formed with orange-yellow fruiting bodies of the fungus.
Wet bacterial rot. Root tissue rots, but there is no plaque on it. The tissue turns into a mucous mass containing bacteria.
Bacteriosis. Small yellow or dark brown spots with a yellow zone appear on the leaves; liquid is released from the tissue (exudate of bacteria).
Jaundice. Viral disease. In addition to carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery, lettuce, tomatoes, and onions are affected. The first sign of the disease is lightening or yellowing of the veins of young leaves and the appearance of a mass of secondary roots on root crops.
Carrot fly. One of the most dangerous and widespread pests of carrots. Pupae overwinter in a cocoon in the surface layers of the soil or larvae in storage. The fly's years coincide with the flowering of rowan and apple trees. Flies keep in shady wet places, on the leaves of trees near water bodies, on wild-growing umbrella plants. Females lay eggs in the soil near young plants.
The hatched larvae are drilled, most often, into the tips of the roots and make passages in them that acquire a rusty color. Root crops become ugly, woody and tasteless, lose marketability. Affected carrots cannot be used as food. During storage, such roots rot and quickly deteriorate. The leaves of damaged plants become reddish-purple in color, turn yellow and dry out. Severely damaged plants die already during the growing season.
Carrot beetle. Small (body length up to 1.7 mm) jumping insect of greenish color with two pairs of wings. Leaf beetles, overwintering in coniferous forests, in the spring first live on pine needles, and then fly to seedlings and young carrot plants.
Developing larvae and adult insects feed on leaves, suck sap from them, causing them to curl. As a result, the plants become depressed and yield reduced yields. The roots acquire a "bearded appearance" and lose their marketability and taste. The flies are especially damaging to young plants.
Field bug. Small greenish-gray insect with a pattern in the form of spots and lines. Damages various plants, causes noticeable damage to carrots. Bed bug larvae suck juice from young leaves. The damaged leaves are shortened, the leaf segments are drawn together, as if twisted. At the injection sites, the tissue turns brown and dies. With severe damage, the leaves turn yellow and dry out.
Umbrella moth. A widespread pest of carrots, parsley, celery, parsnips, lovage, dill and other plants of this family. Small butterfly (wingspan up to 1.8 cm) with dark brown front and grayish hind wings. The butterfly lays eggs on buds, pedicels, and testicles. Hatching caterpillars (brownish with a body covered with tubercles, bearing hairs) gnaw through pedicels, eat buds, flowers, young fruits, and sometimes leaves. The larvae pupate in the same inflorescences on which they fed. In August, butterflies appear, which remain for the winter.
Pale meadow moth or umbrella moth. In addition to carrots, it also damages other plants of the celery family. The butterfly has a wingspan of 2.7-3.4 cm; whitish silvery. Caterpillars are yellow-green with black warts bearing hairs. They appear at the end of May. The larvae live inside the umbrella in a white spider tube. They feed on unripe seeds. In September, the caterpillars go into the soil and pupate there inside the spider cocoons, where they hibernate.
Caraway moth. Moth caterpillars damage plants of carrots, parsley and other plants of the celery family. First, they feed on leaves, making moves in tissues, and then move on to flowering shoots, gnawing pedicels, flowers and immature seeds.
Plant protection methods
Mowing of roads, ditches, destruction of wild-growing umbrella grasses is recommended. For crops of carrots, it is better to choose well-lit and ventilated areas.
It is necessary to remove new crops of carrots and other plants of the celery family from the old ones, as well as from plantings of lovage, observance of the rules of crop rotation.
Deep tillage is needed in the fall, making it difficult for the pest to fly out in the spring. Experts recommend sowing seeds early, observing the seeding rate. You can not thicken crops. Timely weeding and thinning of thickened crops help.
There are no varieties that are absolutely resistant to pests such as carrot flies and carrot flies. You can choose the most effective sowing dates, starting at the end of April, in order to reduce the number of affected plants. Favorably affect the reduction of damage to carrot plants by these pests of planting in its aisles of onions and garlic. You can place beds with these plants next to the carrot bed. Tagetes, calendula, nasturtium also repel pests.
As a deterrent, you can use a solution of ammonia (1 tablespoon per bucket of water) during the summer of these insects: against the lamb in the phase of one or three true leaves, against the carrot fly - from 5 to 20 August. By the way, the nitrogen contained in this preparation can be considered a top dressing.
The larvae of the umbrella moth and the moth from the inflorescences with a slight dispersal can be collected by hand or cut off and destroyed the affected umbrellas.
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