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Protection Of Apple, Pear And Quince From Diseases And Pests
Protection Of Apple, Pear And Quince From Diseases And Pests

Video: Protection Of Apple, Pear And Quince From Diseases And Pests

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Treat & Prevent Fire Blight in Your Apple and Pear Orchard 2023, February
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Protection of pome crops from diseases and pests

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Botrytis, gray rot

One of the most important factors affecting the yield and quality of fruits is the protection of plants from diseases and pests.

Pome crops are exposed to the harmful effects of the greatest number of pests and diseases in comparison with other fruit crops. Unfortunately, modern programs created to combat pathogens often do not provide a consistently high result of plant protection.

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Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Weevil beetle

First of all, this is due to a sharp change in the growing conditions of the culture, an increase in stress factors, a deterioration in the immune system of plants, the appearance of more aggressive pathogens, an increase in the resistance (immunity) of the pathogen to pesticides, and a change in the typical symptoms of diseases.

The annual use of the same drugs and defense systems promotes natural selection and an increase in the number of parasites resistant to them.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Cytosporous desiccation

The increased activity of trade and exchange of planting material without a system of control over the phytosanitary state, especially imported from other regions and neighboring countries, contributes to the spread and development of diseases and pests in new territories that are not typical for them.

For example, in 2008-2009, in the Central Black Earth Region, a similar case was observed with a parasite new to the zone - the Schlechtendahl tick.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Gall mite

The key to the successful protection of plants from diseases and pests is meteorological monitoring of diseases and observation of the functional state of plants, photosynthetic activity, etc.

Meteorological observations make it possible to more accurately determine the timing of the treatment of plants against pathogens, and the functional state of plants - the degree of pesticide load.

All of the above should be taken into account and, to one degree or another, correct the main widely used method of calendar treatments according to the phenophases of plant development.

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System of protection of pome crops by phenophases of plant development

Harmful objects
At temperatures above 12 ° C - copper-containing preparations: Cuproxat - 2.5-5 g / l, Kartotsid - 4-6 g / l, copper oxychloride, SP - 4 g / l, Abiga-PIK - 5 g / l, Poliram DF - 2 kg / ha.
Apollo - 0.4 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Neoron - 1.5 ml / l, Danitol - 1 g / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l. Danitol is best used at temperatures up to 15 ° C, Neoron, Mitak, Akarin, Fitoverm - above 18 ° C, Fitoverm should not be applied to wet leaves. At a temperature of 18-27 ° C, colloidal sulfur can also be used - 8 g / l, such treatment simultaneously suppresses powdery mildew
Fungicides Horus 70% WDG - 0.2 kg / ha, Tersel - 2.5 kg / ha, Skor 25% EC - 0.2 l / ha, Delan 70% WG - 0.6 kg / ha, But 50% WDG - 0.14 kg / ha, Poliram DF, 70% WDG - 2.0 kg / ha, Fundazol 50% SP - 1.0 kg / ha, Vectra - 0.3 ml / l.
Powdery mildew
In the case of frequent and heavy precipitation, apply Skor - 0.2 ml / l (on an apple tree, the last treatment period is 20 days, the frequency rate is 4 times per season; on a pear, respectively, 14 and 4), Vectra, sc - 0.2-0.3 ml / l (30 and 3), Strobe - 0.2 g / l (35 and 3). All drugs also act on powdery mildew. In addition to preventing infection, Strobi, Vectra, Skor are able to eliminate it.
0.4% Polycarbacin or Polychom, Cuproxat -2.5-5 g / l, Kartotsid -4-6 g / l, copper oxychloride, cn 4 g / l, Abiga-PIK -5 g / l.
Lepidocide, p or ck - 20-30 g, Lepidocide, tab. - 4-6 tab., Bicol, cn - 60-160 g (5 and 2), Bitoxibacillin, p - 40-80 g, Bitoxibacillin, tab. - 8-16 tab / l. Repeat the treatment after 10 days.
Neoron - 1.5 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l, colloidal sulfur - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 8 g / l.
Fungicides But 50% VDG - 0.15 kg / ha, Delan 70% VG - 0.6 kg / ha, Speed ​​- 0.2 ml / l, Vectra - 0.3 ml / l, Strobi - 0.2 g / l, copper oxychloride - 4 g / l (up to 20 ° C), alternate and repeat the treatments 2-3 times, observing the waiting times for the preparations.
Neoron - 1.5 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l, colloidal sulfur - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 8 g / l.
Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Apple scab on fruits, initial stage of development

The timing of treatment against insect pests is more accurately determined by their number. Protection against the codling moth should be carried out if more than 6 insects are found in pheromone traps hung in the garden in pheromone traps.

During one growing season, this pest is able to change several generations, therefore, spraying from it must be carried out 2-3 times, especially in years with an extended summer. Treatments from apple blossom beetle and leafworm should be started with an increase in their number to 5 insects per tree.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Apple moth

Protection against ticks is carried out in the presence of three individuals on a leaf, from an apple sawfly 3-4 eggs on sepals, from a honeydew and aphids - when 10% of the shoots are populated.

Weather conditions are of great importance for the choice of drugs.

Pyrethroids (synthetic esters of chrysanthemum acid) are effective only at air temperatures up to + 15 ° С, organophosphorus insecticides and acaricides - above + 15 ° С. Fungicides Strobi and Zato provide high efficiency at temperatures below + 5 ° C and precipitation.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Humpback treehopper

At low temperatures and high humidity, copper-containing preparations cause the formation of a "net" on the fruits and the development of brown spot on the leaves.

Preparations containing sulfur, at temperatures above + 25 ° C, cause leaf burns. Contact fungicides are washed off when precipitation falls and become ineffective.

When carrying out protective measures, it is necessary to provide for the alternation of pesticides of various mechanisms of action, it is necessary to use drugs of a contact and systemic nature.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Fruit damage with a leaf roll

For convenience and high labor productivity, treatment against pests must be carried out with tank mixtures, mixing compatible preparations in one tank.

Since most pesticides are highly toxic and highly toxic substances, safety rules must be followed at all stages of protective measures.

Diseases and pests of pome crops
Diseases and pests of pome crops

Tying the trunk with a rodent net

reference

Pesticides (lat. Pestis - infection and lat. Caedo - kill) are chemicals used to control pests.

Pesticides unite groups of substances:

herbicides used to control weeds, arboritsidy against weedy woody vegetation, insecticides intended against pests, acaricides - to control mites, nematicides - against nematodes, fungicides destroy fungi parasites, antibiotics (preservatives, bactericides) - against bacteria, zoocides, exterminating harmful warm-blooded animals, rodenticides - against rodents, etc.

According to the nature of the action, pesticides are divided into contact (destroying a harmful object in direct contact with it) and systemic (penetrating into plant tissues and killing pests parasitizing on them).

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