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Dogwood: Varieties And Cultivation
Dogwood: Varieties And Cultivation

Video: Dogwood: Varieties And Cultivation

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Video: Dogwood Tree Facts 2023, February
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Useful ornamental plant dogwood can be mastered on the site

general characteristics

Cornel ordinary
Cornel ordinary

Cornel ordinary (or male) - Cornus mas - deciduous, highly branched shrub or small tree up to 8 meters high.

In nature, it grows in mountain forests, on forest edges and in thickets of other shrubs, rising to a level of 1500 meters. Found in Transcarpathia, Crimea, Caucasus, Central and Southern Europe and Western Asia.

Young shoots of dogwood are greenish-yellow at first, later covered with gray cracking bark. Leaves are simple, whole, elongated-elliptical, narrowly pointed at the end, green, glossy above and lighter below, with compressed scattered hairs.

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Dogwood plants - long-lived shrubs - live from 120 to 250 years. Their bark is reddish brown. The fruits are edible, juicy, sweet and sour, astringent, pleasant to the taste, after freezing their taste is significantly improved.

The reduction in the area of ​​dogwood is associated with insufficient production of high-quality planting material, however, the author of this article reliably knows that this problem is beginning to be gradually resolved, there are already plantations in Krasnogvardeisky, Belogorsky, Bakhchisarai districts, in the zone of Sevastopol and Yalta, in Kherson and Zaporizhzhya regions. The widespread distribution of dogwood is also hindered by its low winter hardiness - even in the conditions of the Central zone of Russia, which has a not so harsh climate, the dogwood sometimes freezes to the level of snow cover.

Cornel is an exceptionally valuable fruit crop, biologically active components that make up the berries, normalize blood pressure, prevent sclerosis, in addition, berries are used as a tonic, tonic, anti-inflammatory agent for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Cornel ordinary
Cornel ordinary

Its fruits are considered biologically valuable. Their pulp contains up to 17% sugars, over 3% organic acids, vitamins C, P, A, a lot of iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur salts. The content of vitamin C in fruits is close to that of currants, and in some varieties it is even higher.

The inhabitants of the Crimea consider the dogwood fruit to be extremely useful for all kinds of diseases, especially in the form of a decoction. There is even a small legend about this, explaining the shortage of doctors in Taurida, who did not agree to stay there to work, because they did not see the point in this due to the presence of a huge amount of wild dogwood, which at that time was considered the best doctor against all diseases inherent in human the body.

From time immemorial, a decoction of cornel leaves was used to treat intestinal diseases, and a decoction of fruits was used to treat colds and fevers. In addition, the fruits have bactericidal properties. Quite recently it was found that the cornelian bark, its berries and leaves contain organic acids, sugars, pectins, tannins, and they contain the same amount of vitamin C as in black currants. In the Caucasus, a special vitamin lavash is made from mashed dogwood berries. It is reliably known that during the First World War, with the help of such lavash on the Caucasian front, it was possible to eliminate such a dangerous disease as scurvy.

Inhabitants of the southern regions, where dogwood is the most common, unripe berries are salted with bay leaves and fennel, a dish is obtained that tastes like well-known olives. From reliable sources it is known that this recipe, bypassing the years, has reached our days and since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, where cornelian fruits were also salted and eaten with cheese and fish, and almost did not change.

Due to its early flowering, dense beautiful foliage and bright fruits, durability and resistance in urban conditions, the dogwood is an excellent ornamental plant for gardens, parks and home gardens.

Dogwood varieties

Over the long history of growing dogwood, a fairly large number of varieties have been created that differ in the shape of the crown, color of the leaves, size and taste of the fruits. Among them, the most famous are worth noting:

Vladimirsky

One of the most productive varieties with large (average weight over 7 g), visually attractive, one-dimensional, shiny, black-red fruits, oval-cylindrical, somewhat flattened on both sides. The pulp of the fruit is gristly, dense, the taste is sweet and sour. They ripen at the end of August. The positive quality of this plant is the lack of shedding of fruits, due to their dense attachment to the branches. Fruiting is abundant, annual, the harvest from a twenty-year-old plant is 55-60 kilograms. The fruits are good both fresh and processed products.

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Vydubetsky

Fruits are large, reach 6.5 grams, oval-pear-shaped, dark red, shiny and juicy with a thin skin and tender, sweet-sour pulp with a specific cornelian cherry aroma. The variety is characterized by an average ripening period and an annual stable (up to 60 kilograms per plant) yield. The fruits are tasty both raw and suitable for processing.

Evgeniya

Fruits are regular oval, shiny, dark red, almost black when fully ripe with a thin but dense skin. The pulp is dark red, tender, sweet-sour taste. The average fruit weight is 6 grams. The fruits ripen in the last decade of August - early September. The variety has a high yield, a 15-year-old tree can produce up to 50 kilograms of fruit. Fruits ripen together, do not crumble, ripen well in maturation, fresh in the refrigerator are stored for up to five weeks. Evgenia's variety is one of the best fruits in terms of biochemical composition. They are good fresh, frozen and processed products.

Coral Mark

The variety is obtained by crossing the yellow-fruited dogwood (Amber) and the red-fruited dogwood varieties. The fruits are pink-orange, original in shape, barrel-shaped, similar to cherry plums. The average fruit weight is about 6 grams. When fully ripe, the fruits are transparent. They are sweet, with a cherry flavor, but somewhat sour. The pulp of the fruit is pink. The variety has an average ripening period, annual fruiting and a stable yield of up to 40 kilograms per tree. The fruits are suitable for consumption both fresh and in jelly, jam, juices and syrups.

Lukyanovskiy

Fruits are large, one-dimensional, have the shape of a bottle, are beautifully colored in dark red, and in the period of full ripening almost black. The average fruit weight is 6 grams. The fruits are characterized by juicy pulp, dense and dark red, with a specific cornelian aroma. The fruits usually ripen in the third decade of August. Plants of this variety have a compact, rounded crown and reach a height of 3 meters. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a twenty-year-old tree reaches 70 kilograms.

Delicate

Yellow-fruited variety, distinguished by original bottle-shaped fruits with delicate sweet pulp, in ripe fruits a bone is visible through it. The average fruit weight is 4.5-5.5 grams. The variety has an average ripening period, annual and stable fruiting, the yield from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 40 kilograms. The crown of the tree is oval-pyramidal, up to 2.2 meters high, which makes the plant looks very attractive. The fruits are good both fresh and in raw jams.

Firefly

One of the largest-fruited varieties with an average fruit weight of 6.5–7.5 grams. Bottle-shaped fruits with a thickened neck. Ripe fruits are red-black with dark red flesh, firm, sweet-sour and very aromatic. They ripen at the end of August, do not crumble and are well stored after harvesting. A tree with an oval crown up to 2.5 meters high and up to 3. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 60 kilograms. Fresh fruits are very tasty when fully ripe, well suited for freezing and processing.

Elegant

Bottle-shaped fruit with a thin neck, graceful, very nicely aligned in shape and size, with an average weight of 5 grams. Ripe fruits are cherry-black, their flesh is dark red, tender. The variety is early, ripens in early August, in some years - at the end of July. Unpicked fruits do not crumble, wither and hang on the tree until frost. A spur type variety - plants are low, up to 2 meters high with a wide, but sparse crown. The harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 50 kilograms. It is slightly lower than that of other varieties, but due to its beautiful, graceful and tasty fruits, the Elegant variety deserves attention. Its fruits, as the earliest in terms of ripening, are often used fresh.

These varieties are very valuable and can be confidently recommended for both amateur and industrial gardening.

Today, the market for dogwood seedlings is represented mainly by small private farms, or simply by amateur gardeners who earn their living by producing seedlings; prices for seedlings vary depending on their origin. The cheapest, obtained from sowing seeds (their price ranges from 20 to 45 rubles), however, the quality of such plants is not very high - only 1.5-2% of cultural characteristics remain from the original, and such a seedling begins to bear fruit only by 10 12 years old.

Saplings obtained by green cuttings are much more expensive; their rooting takes place in a greenhouse, hence the costs, such a seedling can be estimated at 120-170 rubles, but its advantages are that it begins to bear fruit already in 3-4 years. The most expensive seedlings are obtained by grafting varieties on the stock - wild dogwood, such seedlings can bear fruit the next year, and they cost about 200-250 rubles per plant.

Requirements for agricultural technology

Cornel ordinary
Cornel ordinary

Cornel is a thermophilic plant and is most successfully grown in regions with a fairly mild climate. In the conditions of central Russia, the fruits of dogwood ripen in a warm, slightly rainy summer.

You can also try growing it in more northern regions. Indeed, in recent years, grapes have been widely introduced there, individual gardeners grow apricots, nectarine. It must be remembered that dogwood is picky about the composition of the soil, it feels best on rich in lime, rather than on acidic soils, it is quite light-loving, but it grows in the shade.

Planting dogwood

It is better to plant dogwood seedlings in the garden in the fall, poplar trees can serve as a guide: the end of leaf fall is a good time for planting dogwood. On the site, it should be placed on the south or southwest side in order to at least slightly reduce the likelihood of frost damage to plants. Usually, in order to enjoy the fruits of the dogwood to its fullest, it is enough to plant 2-3 plants. Taking into account the further growth of the bush and the development of the root system, they should be placed at a distance of at least 2.5–3 meters from each other.

Plants are planted in pits 50-60 cm wide and deep, covered with humus-rich soil, and watered with 1-2 buckets of water, this is usually quite enough.

The aerial part should not be cut off, since the fibrous root system of the dogwood ensures its 100 percent survival rate.

As for industrial plantings, here the planting scheme is somewhat different and depends, first of all, on soil fertility. The more fertile your site, the more powerful the plants will turn out and, accordingly, the farther they should be located from each other. On poorer soils, planting is carried out denser. At the same time, if the dogwood orchard is adjacent to other fruit crops, the scheme of this garden can be preserved. It is recommended to plant industrial plantations according to a 5x4 meter scheme, so you can arrange 500 trees per hectare.

Planting and harvesting dogwood

Cornel ordinary
Cornel ordinary

Care for an industrial plantation is practically no different from that in amateur gardening, the exception, perhaps, is mandatory watering, a sufficient amount of which is provided by installing drip irrigation.

Harvesting in both industrial and amateur gardening is done by hand.

Use of dogwood fruit

The fruits are consumed both fresh and after processing them into jelly and compotes, syrups, marmalades, various drinks, and also get excellent wine and liqueur from them. In folk medicine, they are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, as an appetite stimulant, diuretic, general tonic for vitamin deficiencies and general weakening of the body.

Among other things, the fruits are used in dried form for the preparation of infusions and decoctions. Roasted and ground kernels are used as a coffee substitute. In the Caucasus, special sweet cakes in the form of a long ribbon are prepared from dogwood - a marshmallow made from fruit dough based on mashed pulp, which quenches thirst surprisingly quickly.

Dogwood recipes tested by the author:

Cornel ordinary
Cornel ordinary

Cornel compote

Pouring - one kilogram of sugar for one liter of water. I sort out the dogwood, rinse it, boil it for 2-3 minutes in boiling water and leave it to dry. I put it in small sterilized jars, fill it with hot fill and close it. I sterilize the cans of compote for about 30 minutes at 85 ° C.

Kissel from dogwood and gooseberry

130 grams of berries (in half), 125 grams of sugar, 50 grams of starch - there will be liquid jelly. I wash the berries and put them in hot water, boil for about 10 minutes. I drain the broth, and knead the remaining berries. I add pulp to the broth, boil and filter, then pour sugar and boil again. At the end, I add starch, previously diluted in cold water, and brew jelly.

Jam from dogwood

1 kg of dogwood, 700 grams of sugar. I peel the dogwood fruit and boil it in a little water with sugar until it thickens. Then I sterilize in jars at 85 ° C for twenty minutes.

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