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Video: Celery Varieties And Cultivation, Seed Preparation, Celery Seedling Cultivation
Read the previous part of the article - Celery: nutritional value, medicinal properties, requirements for growing conditions
Ancient sacred vegetable celery
There are root, leaf and petiole varieties. In root varieties, nutrients and aromatic substances are more concentrated in the root, in leafy and petiole varieties, respectively, in the upper part of the plants, but this subdivision is to some extent arbitrary. Root celery forms fleshy, well-developed root crops weighing up to 500 g. Their shape is from round -flat to nearly spherical. The pulp is sometimes void. The fibrous lateral roots in most varieties cover almost the entire surface of the root crop, in some, only the lower part.
The rosette of leaves, semi-spreading or erect, consists on average of 15-40 leaves of green or dark green color. The leaf petioles are thin, hollow, ribbed, with a groove on the inside. In some varieties, the petioles have anthocyanin pigmentation. With a thickened planting, these varieties give a good leaf mass and a small (80-200 g) root crop. This includes such varieties as: Albin, Diamant, Egor, Esaul, Kaskade, Kornevoy Gribovskiy, President of the Republic of Zaporizhia, Yudinka, Yablochny.
Petiole celery has a fibrous root system. They do not form root crops. The rosette is usually 15-20 leaves, rarely up to 40, compact, sometimes semi-spreading. Leaves are green and light green, convex on the outside, smooth. When planted sparsely, they form fleshy petioles. Their width reaches 3-4 cm. The varieties of this variety are cultivated to obtain petioles, which, after bleaching (shading), lose their green color and bitterness and acquire a spicy taste. Stalked celery varieties can also be grown in thickened planting for leafy mass. The variety of petiolate celery Tango has been zoned.
A leafy celery with a fibrous root system. The rosette of leaves in most varieties is spreading from 50-70, and sometimes from 200 leaves. Leaves with thin, long, hollow petioles. The leaf blades are small, mostly with smooth edges. There are varieties with twisted (corrugated) leaves - leafy curly celery. The color of the leaves is green, of various shades, sometimes with a weak anthocyanin pigmentation. Leaf celery varieties are more early ripening and, when planted thicken, give a high yield of leaves. The weight of one plant can reach 3 kg. Leafy varieties of celery are grown: Zakhar, Tender and Parus.
It is interesting that we prefer varieties of root celery, while leafy and especially petiolate varieties are much less widespread. In other countries (USA, England, Canada, Italy, etc.), on the contrary, petiolate varieties are more common.
In the southern regions, you can sow seeds directly into the ground, but this should not be done in the northern and central lane. Due to the long growing season, celery is grown mainly in seedlings.
Site selection and soil preparation
Place the celery in the open field after crops such as cabbage, potatoes, beets. Cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, and tomato are also good predecessors. You can grow celery in the year of harvest after early green crops: lettuce, spinach, watercress, radish.
In autumn, in the area set aside for celery, they make a deep digging, which contributes to the destruction of weeds and the death of pests wintering in the soil. Areas with heavy loamy soils are dug up in the spring. Deep autumn cultivation on them is replaced by loosening to a depth of 8-10 cm. In the spring, after retaining moisture in light areas, it is necessary to deep loosening the soil. In areas with heavy soils or on lands that have not been cultivated for any reason since autumn, digging is done a few days after early spring shallow loosening in order to retain moisture, as soon as the soil is ripe and crumbles easily. In a dry spring, for deep soil cultivation, it makes sense to use cultivating tools that loosen the soil well and do not turn it over - such gardening tools as flat cutters.
When growing celery in order to obtain a root crop, organic fertilizers are applied under the predecessor. Under celery, intended for the production of greens, 4-5 kg of humus, peat compost or even manure (if the soils are poor in organic matter) are applied for each square meter. Mineral fertilizers are applied in an amount: 30-50 g of phosphorus and 15-20 g of nitrogen and potash. Moreover, if soil conditions allow (the plot is not flooded in the spring and fertilizers are not washed out), 2/3 of the phosphorus-potassium fertilizers can be applied in the fall, the rest of them and nitrogen fertilizers - during the spring filling of the soil. When applying mineral fertilizers in spring, superphosphate must be applied simultaneously with organic fertilizers, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers - under pre-planting loosening of the soil. When using complex fertilizers (ekofoski, nitrophoska, azofoska, Kemira, etc.) them in the amount of 30-50 g per 1 m² are introduced in the spring.
When growing celery in the Non-Black Earth Zone on heavy, waterlogged soils, it is necessary to make beds or ridges.
Seed preparation, sowing, growing and transplanting seedlings
Due to the long growing season, celery is grown mainly in seedlings. The reason for this is also the fact that its seeds are small, the seedlings are very weak, the seedlings appear slowly. To accelerate germination, before sowing, the seeds are soaked for three days in warm water (water should be changed at least twice a day). After soaking, the seeds are sprinkled in a thin layer between a damp cloth and kept warm for 7-10 days until sprouts appear.
Seedlings are prepared in film greenhouses, hotbeds, you can use the window sills and loggias of a city apartment for this. Celery seeds are sown in late February-early March in seed boxes filled with soil mixture. The distance between the rows when sowing seeds is 5-8 cm. Seed consumption when growing seedlings with a pick of 0.5-0.6 g per 1 m², without a pick - 0.2 g per 1 m². Seeds are covered with soil on top with a layer of 0.5-1 cm.
The pick is done at a time when the plants have 2-3 true leaves. Plants dive into pots 3x3 or 4x4 cm in size. When diving, the school is immersed in the ground to the base of the leaves, but so as not to fill up the central bud. Growing seedlings without picking and without pots is acceptable. When growing celery without picking, thinning of the seedlings should be done to avoid pulling the plants. If necessary, the thinning is repeated. All plants taken out during thinning can be cut into empty boxes or on a garden bed in a greenhouse (in a greenhouse). When transplanting a school of celery, you should pinch the roots by 1/3 of their length if they are more than 6-7 cm.
It is very good to use cool light windowsills or racks equipped with cold fluorescent lamps for growing seedlings in a city apartment. The distance between the shelves of the shelves should be at least 40-50 cm, this will make it easy to care for the plants and give them the opportunity to develop unhindered.
Recently, the so-called low-volume or seedlings obtained in the volume of the substrate, which is 5-10 times less than usual, is becoming more widespread in "indoor vegetable growing". Its main advantage is saving the area for growing seedlings, ensuring a given optimal plant density when transporting it to the place of planting, and when planting in open ground, it also significantly saves the cost of manual labor. However, in this case, the race in plant development is significantly lost.
Of interest to amateur gardeners is the so-called bouquet method of growing celery seedlings. In this case, seeds (5-7 pcs.) Are sown in pots with a diameter of 4-5 cm, evenly scattering them over the soil surface, so that during cultivation they do not oppress each other. In this case, a pick is not done, only with a strong thickening, the seedlings are thinned out.
Caring for plants during the period of growing celery seedlings consists in watering, loosening and regulating the microclimate. Temperature, light, nutrition and moisture are the determining factors in growing high quality seedlings. The best temperature for growing celery seedlings is + 16 … + 20 ° С. The maximum temperature during the day should not be higher than + 25 ° С, at night - more than + 18 ° С, the minimum should not be lower than + 5 ° С. The relative humidity of the air when growing celery seedlings should be 60-70%. The room needs strong ventilation. A decrease in soil temperature, which is often observed when growing seedlings on a balcony, loggia or veranda, inhibits the growth of seedlings.
1.5-2 weeks before planting plants in a permanent place, it is advisable to give liquid fertilizing: for 1 bucket of water 30 g of nitrogen, 30 g of phosphorus and 20 g of potassium fertilizers; or 1 part mullein to 10 parts water and 20 g each of double superphosphate and potassium salt; or 1 part slurry to 3 parts water and 20 g each of double superphosphate and potassium salt. It is better that when feeding the solution does not get on the plants - there may be burns. After feeding, the seedlings are watered with clean water from a watering can with a strainer to wash off the fertilizer that has fallen on the leaves.
A few days before planting in a permanent place, seedlings intended for open ground are hardened. In greenhouses, the frames are first removed for the day, and then at night. In the greenhouse, doors and vents are opened during the day. Ventilation is also arranged on the loggia. It is very convenient to harden seedlings grown in boxes or containers. Containers with plants for the day are taken outside the cultivation facility, and at night they are brought inside again. Before planting, the seedlings are left in the open field for 1-2 days.
At the age of 60-70 days from germination or 40-50 days after picking, the celery seedlings are ready for planting in a permanent place. It is planted in open ground with 4-5 leaves in the second half of May - early June, usually following cabbage seedlings.
During the selection of seedlings, the plants are carefully removed from the moist soil, taking care not to disturb the root system.
Celery is best planted in cloudy or even rainy weather, with watering. The plants are deepened to the base of the leaves, but without filling the central bud. On the beds, celery is planted in 3-4 rows, on the ridges - in two lines. To obtain greenery, they are planted with a distance between rows of 20-30 cm and in a row 15-20 cm.
To obtain root crops, the feeding area is increased to 40x40 cm. A large root crop can also be obtained with a thickened planting (as when growing on greens). To do this, it is necessary to carry out timely (at the beginning of August) thinning of the plants, removing them after one.
To obtain large petioles, plants are placed at a distance of 40-70 cm between rows and 40-50 cm in a row. The planting depth is 1-1.5 cm deeper than in greenhouses or greenhouses, but no more. When planted deeply, highly branched and small roots are formed.
Planting care and cleaning
Caring for the planting of celery consists in loosening, weeding, watering, feeding. As weeds appear and a crust forms, the soil between the rows and in the furrows is loosened several times during the growing season. The first loosening is done to a shallow depth (4-5 cm), as soon as the first weed seedlings appear. Subsequent loosening between rows and in furrows is done as needed or after dressing. Deep loosening (12-15 cm) is carried out when the soil is strongly compacted as a result of frequent and heavy rains or abundant watering by sprinkling.
The first fertilizing with mineral fertilizers is carried out 15-20 days after planting the seedlings. Introduce for each square meter 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 10-15 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride. Fertilizers in liquid or, in extreme cases, dry are applied before rain or watering. In this case, you can make top dressing with compost grass, diluting it with water in a ratio of 1: 3. 2-3 weeks after the first feeding, do the second. When growing celery for greens, the composition of fertilizers is the same as for the first feeding.
To obtain large root crops, nitrogen fertilizers are excluded from top dressing or their amount is halved, at the same time the amount of potash fertilizers is increased, bringing them to 20-30 g per 1 m²; superphosphate give 10-15 g per 1 m². On areas of infertile, insufficiently filled with nutrients, as well as in case of rainy weather, it is advisable to carry out a third feeding with the same fertilizers and in the same ratio as the second.
To obtain delicate stalks from stalked celery, they are bleached with the help of boards, which are placed on both sides along the row. A simpler technique is hilling plants, which is carried out in September in dry weather. Hilling is repeated every two weeks. On small beds for bleaching, you can use strips of thick dark paper. They wrap the petioles of plants from the soil to the leaf blades.
Selective harvesting of celery begins in late July - early August. Finish harvesting before the onset of stable frost. It is possible to cut the leaves twice in the period from August 10-15 to October. The total yield of celery with a double cut and final harvesting with root crops is 2 kg per 1 m². When harvesting, celery is poured in, trying not to damage the leaves and roots. In plants of petiole, leaf and root varieties, lateral roots and yellowed leaves are cut off. In root varieties intended for long-term storage, all leaves are carefully cut off, being careful not to damage the root crop.
Growing celery in greenhouses
Growing in the spring and summer by planting seedlings. Celery seedlings are planted in film greenhouses and hotbeds, depending on the availability of heat, in March - early April, and under small-sized shelters - in April. Seeds are sown for seedlings in January - February. Short-term (within 5-8 days) additional illumination of seedlings accelerates the growth of seedlings and improves the quality of seedlings.
Celery in greenhouses by planting seedlings is grown both as a main crop and as a compactor. For growing on greens in greenhouses, leaf varieties of celery are preferred, as the earliest ripening, and petiolate, which, in comparison with leafy ones, form a smaller number of leaves, but are not inferior to them in weight.
Root varieties in this case give the lowest yield. Prepared in advance, 40-50-day seedlings with 4-5 true leaves are planted according to the 25x15 cm scheme, when the main plantings are compacted with celery, the aisles are reduced to 10-15 cm, and in a row - up to 5 cm. When growing celery in a greenhouse, all free the places left after planting cucumbers or tomatoes. In this case, the seedlings are placed along the sides of the ridges. They also plant it as the main crop, occupying the entire greenhouse area, 80-100 pieces per 1 m².
When growing celery, top dressing is done with readily soluble mineral complex fertilizers, best of all with crystalline (solution) at the rate of 15-25 g or 40-50 g of ammonium nitrate and 20-30 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride per 10 liters. Consumption of the prepared solution - pour 1 bucket into 1-2 m². They start harvesting 50-70 days after disembarking the seedlings. When planting in March, the celery can be harvested in June. Productivity in the case of a one-time harvest when growing celery in greenhouses as the main crop is up to 4-7 kg per 1 m². When planting it as a sealant, it is 1.5-3 kg from 1 m². The yield of greens with 4-5 cuts reaches up to 8-10 kg per 1 m².
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