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Video: Cultivation And Use Of Celery, Types And Varieties
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Piggy bank of life-giving power
Celery (Apium Graveolens L.) is a biennial vegetable plant of the Celery family (Umbrella), has three varieties: root, leaf and petiole.
In the first year, the plant forms a root crop (root) or a root (leaf, petiolate) and a powerful rosette of leaves. In the second year, the plant forms a peduncle up to 1 m tall and a small-umbilical inflorescence. Seeds are small, almost round, 1.5-2.0 mm long. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4-0.6 g.
It would seem that this is a plant known to all. However, how often do you meet him in Russian gardens? At the same time, it is difficult to imagine French cuisine without this vegetable. What would a Georgian hodgepodge be without him? Can't you imagine? Here I am too.
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In fact, celery is the oldest plant originating from the Mediterranean, the North Caucasus, North Africa, Europe, spread all the way to Sweden. At least it is still found here in the wild. Even before our era, this plant was used as a medicinal, decorative or ritual. Later, it began to be used as a spicy-aromatic culture. In Europe in the XV-XVII centuries, celery is increasingly being introduced into culture. In Russia, it appeared in the 18th century, but never became widespread.
We have only the most trained, experienced gardeners grow the root variety of celery, others - leaf. In Europe, root crops are grown (in our grocery stores you can buy root crops from Holland), and more often - leaf and petiole celery. In our country, the petiolate variety of this valuable vegetable is little known, although in the USA, North Africa, India, China, Korea, Japan, this and other varieties are common favorite vegetables. In Russia, celery can be found more often in the fields of suburban farms, near canneries than in vegetable gardens. In the CIS, it is cultivated in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, as well as in the Baltic republics.
There are not many, but seeds are available. In the "State Register … 2004" 8 varieties of root celery i. These are Albin, Diamant, Yegor, Esaul, Kornevoy Gribovsky, President of the Republic of Zaporizhia, Yudinka, Yablochny. In addition to them, you can see the varieties Delicates, Berger White ball, Friga, Appia, Gribovets, Brilliant, Maxim, Monarch on sale. In vegetable farms, and sometimes in the retail network, there are Dutch hybrids and varieties Luna, Triumph, Ilona, Mentor, Pontor and others.
Far fewer varieties of leaf celery. These are primarily local forms and varieties of Georgia and Transcaucasia such as Kartuli. In the "State Register … 2004" 5 new varieties of leafy celery: Athena, Zakhar, Tender, Parus, Samurai.
Petiolate varieties of celery are cultivated in our country unreasonably little. True, there are not enough seeds of this variety on sale. There are varieties of Utah, Golden Pen, Pascal, Florida, Malachite. In the "State Register … 2004" only one variety - Tango. In vegetable farms, and sometimes in small packaging, there are Dutch varieties Avalon, Bolivar, Daklet, Grinlet, Loret and others. Agrotechnics of culture.
Celery is a crop that is demanding on soil fertility: the best soils for it are loams, rich in organic matter, loose, deeply cultivated, moist, close to neutral (pH 6.0-7.0). He is not placed with relatives. It is better if the predecessors are cabbage, nightshade, onion, pumpkin crops.
In autumn, it is advisable to deeply cultivate the soil. For digging, a bucket of compost, humus, enriched peat, as well as phosphoric (about 40 g / m² superphosphate) and potassium (20 g / m² potassium chloride) fertilizers are applied per 1 m². Nitrogen is applied in spring (20 g / m² of urea or ammonium nitrate). Celery seeds are difficult to germinate, therefore they are soaked at room temperature in a solution of boric acid (0.2 g / liter) or in Zircon, Epin in accordance with the recommendations. Then the seeds are dried and sown.
Root celery is grown only through seedlings, sowing in late February - early March in pots, boxes, special onion, celery cassettes (fine-mesh, deep). The seeds are practically not buried. Cover boxes, pots with foil. Fresh seeds germinate in 8-10 days at a temperature of about 25 ° C.
Old seeds (celery seeds are stored for 3-4 years, but usually already in the second year their germination rate sharply decreases) germinate in 3-4 weeks. After the emergence of seedlings, they are sprinkled with a layer of soil 0.5-1.0 cm. After a week or two, good seeds sprout, on the 30-40th day in a warm, bright place, the seedlings are already at the stage of two true leaves. At this time (mid-April), the crops in boxes are thinned out, leaving seedlings on an area of 5x5 cm. A third of the roots of the extracted seedlings are pinched and dived into pots - 5x5 cm. After that, the plants are watered, you can give them foliar top dressing with water-soluble fertilizers with microelements (Kemira -Lux, Solution) in a half dose. After a week, it is advisable to lower the temperature to 15-20 ° C.
After 60-70 days (May 15-20, after the danger of frost passes, otherwise the plants will shoot themselves), in the phase of 4-5 true leaves, the seedlings are ready for planting in the ground. Landing scheme: 30x30 cm, 40-60x20 cm, etc. When transplanting, it is advisable to shorten the roots by a third of their length, and the leaves by a quarter. Seedlings are planted so that the apical bud is not buried. Otherwise, you will not get a normal root crop. After 5-10 days (early June) after transplanting, the first root feeding is done with water-soluble complex fertilizers such as Solution, Kemira-Lux, or OMU, liquid organic fertilizers are applied superficially. Every 20 days, make another 2-3 feeding. The soil is kept moist, free from weeds. Be sure to regularly loosen the soil.
To get large root crops somewhere in the beginning of August, the soil is removed from the plants, freeing the root crop by half. Break out old leaves around its perimeter. Throughout the summer, celery greens are used, breaking out the leaves. Plants of petiolate varieties are spud in early August. Their leaves can be tied with a bank rubber band for money. The bleached leaves are tender and do not have the characteristic harsh celery flavor. Leaf celery is used during the summer and harvested before frost.
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Celery harvesting, celery storage
Root celery is harvested as late as possible, but before the onset of frost below - 5 … - 7 ° C. After frost, root crops are worse stored. In mid-September, they are dug up, freed from the soil by hand, the leaves are cut off at an angle, leaving petioles 2-3 cm long, without damaging the apical bud. Root crops are dried, placed in perforated plastic bags, or in boxes, dusting with chalk, or covered with dry peat. Some of the root crops are left to winter in the garden bed, cutting off the leaves.
After the onset of stable frosts, sprinkle with a layer of earth 8-10 cm, peat, sawdust, ground bark, etc. with a layer of 5-10 cm, or covered with a dense covering material such as spunbond. In the spring, fresh greens are obtained on them before shooting.
The dug roots of leafy, petiolate, or non-standard root crops of root celery are planted in pots, wooden or plastic boxes and are alternately placed on the windowsills all winter, expelling fresh herbs. For the same purposes, the July sowing is done, and in the fall, young plants are transplanted and exposed, without cutting, on the windowsill. Thus, the break in the consumption of greens is eliminated.
Useful properties of celery
Celery is a valuable food product and remedy. Its roots contain 10-20%, in the leaves - 9-18% of dry matter, from 1.8-3.5 to 0.6-1.4%, respectively, of sugars, the most valuable amino acids asparagine, tyrosine, as well as vitamin C, carotene, nicotinic acid, B vitamins, trace elements, essential oils (up to 10 in roots, up to 30 mg /% in leaves). All parts of the plant stimulate the appetite.
Celery preparations are used to regulate the activity of the liver and kidneys, and enhance sexual function. They are also used as sleeping pills, pain relievers, wound healing agents, a remedy for obesity, for the prevention of atherosclerosis, normalization of metabolism, as antiallergic.
Celery juice is used for the treatment of urolithiasis, for gastrointestinal diseases, as a remedy for allergies, diathesis, urticaria, etc. It is impossible for a modern person, who increasingly accepts refined food, to ignore the medicinal and dietary qualities of celery.
Celery in cooking
Since the 15th century, it has been widely used in cooking in Europe, both fresh and processed. In our country, it is still little grown and consumed, although there are quite a few varieties, seeds are available. The reason, in my opinion, is ignorance of the useful properties of this plant, agricultural technology, processing methods, and culinary recipes. The point is also in the mentality of Russians. For example, I even had to teach my relatives, friends and acquaintances to consume celery (as well as coriander, basil, etc.), secretly adding it to salads.
Celery can be used as a gingerbread plant for preparing aromatic seasonings for salads, side dishes, soups, as a green edible table decoration.
Separate dishes are prepared from petioles and root vegetables: stewed celery with vegetables, baked celery.
Celery cutlets are prepared from a mixture of oatmeal and root vegetables.
It goes well with apples, especially sour ones, carrots, pineapples and in salads and stewed.
Celery salads can be mixed with potatoes and tomatoes, carrots and beans, green peas, corn, fruits, any herbs, meat, fish, etc.
Celery is used in the preparation of pickles and canned food.
Leaves and roots are salted, canned, dried, made special dressings and added to soups and main courses in winter.
Petiole celery, finely chopped, pickled.
Celery can be harvested for future use to feast on delicious vitamin soups in winter. For this, fresh celery is frozen in the freezer or, cut into one centimeter slices along with the roots, dried in the shade in a ventilated room.
Finely chop the herbs and roots of celery, parsley, carrots, leeks. Mix all components in one part (by weight) and 1 part of salt, put in jars, seal with plastic lids and store until use in the refrigerator.
Pickled celery root
Peel fresh, ripe celery, wash thoroughly and cut into cubes. Dip the chopped celery into boiling salted water for 2-3 minutes (30 g of salt and 3 g of citric acid per 1 liter of water). Then immediately transfer to cold water, remove, let the water drain and fill the jars with celery up to the shoulders. Pour in hot marinade and pasteurize at 95 ° C: half-liter jars - 20 minutes, liter jars - 25 minutes.
Celery (root), water - 4 cups, 9% vinegar - 1 cup, cloves - 3-4 buds.
Pickled celery leaves
Wash fresh healthy celery leaves thoroughly. Put garlic cloves and bay leaves on the bottom of the jars, and then the prepared celery leaves. Pour in hot marinade and sterilize in boiling water for 20-25 minutes.
Celery (leaves), water - 4 cups, 9% vinegar - 1 cup, salt - 40-80 g, sugar - 40-100 g. Per liter jar: garlic - 2-4 cloves, bay leaf - 2 pcs.
Canned petiole celery
The washed petioles are blanched for 3-5 minutes. Spices (pepper, bay leaf, cinnamon) are placed on the bottom of the prepared jars, the stalks are placed there, poured with hot marinade and sterilized in boiling water (half-liter jars - 5 minutes).
On a half-liter jar, take 300-320 g of petioles, for the preparation of 1 liter of marinade, 50 g of sugar, 40 g of salt, 8 g of ice-cold 96% acetic acid are consumed.
Dried garlic with celery
The seasoning can be used for dressing borscht, cabbage soup, vegetable soups.
Dry garlic - 1 part, celery (dry herbs) - 1 part.
There are root, leaf and petiole varieties celery. In root varieties, nutrients and aromatic substances are more concentrated in the root, in leafy and petiole varieties, respectively, in the upper part of the plants, but this subdivision is to some extent arbitrary. Root celery forms fleshy, well-developed root crops weighing up to 500 g. Their shape is from round -flat to nearly spherical. The pulp is sometimes void. I cover the fibrous lateral roots in most varieties
We have been growing lettuce on our site for a long time, we started with varieties such as Moscow Greenhouse, Berlin Yellow, Festivalny, there were other varieties, but recently varieties with very beautiful carved, corrugated leaves, more resistant to flowering, and fruitful, have appeared. Among them, we gave preference to leaf and head varieties
Hyssop officinalis is a herbaceous perennial plant of the lamotaceous family. It is a medicinal, spicy and ornamental plant with a strong balsamic scent. It is also called hisop, kusop, yusefka, blue St. John's wort
Now celery has become one of the fashionable plants, especially the root variety - you can see it on supermarket shelves, write about it in fashionable ladies' magazines, cook dishes with it on popular television programs, etc. In other words, celery has found its second birth in Russia. There is nothing wrong with this - the plant is very useful, it just sometimes becomes funny when celery is presented as some kind of exotic culture, previously, as if completely unknown to anyone
The plant is more or less thermophilic, some species winter in central Russia if the base of the bush is well covered. Mulch protects dormant buds at the base of the shoots from frost. If they are still frozen, then flowering will be delayed for 2-3 weeks