Table of contents:
- He walks, but casually, breeds beans …
- Tasty and healthy
- Features of culture
- Choosing a landing site
- Sowing beans
- Bean crop care
- Protecting beans from pests and diseases
He walks, but casually, breeds beans …
Beans are an annual plant in the Legume family. People have been growing them since antiquity. This plant was especially actively cultivated by peasants in the 18th and 19th centuries, including in Russia. Now, unfortunately, beans are still rare in garden plots.
Everyone who has read Jack London will remember that his characters took cans of canned beans with them on long hikes. And this is no coincidence. After all, the fruits of this plant are tasty and fresh - unripe grains are used for food. And after they are fully ripe, they are used as food for preparing first and second courses. Beans contain vitamins, protein, fats, and fiber. Moreover, they surpass green peas in protein content, and potatoes in calorie content - three times!
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Tasty and healthy
Research by scientists has shown that beans have a diuretic and anti-inflammatory effect, which determines their medicinal properties. Legumes are indicated for the diet of patients with inflammation of the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, since they are high in calories and low in volume and are an excellent source of trace elements, vitamins and proteins necessary for the human body. Green beans are actively used for the prevention of vitamin deficiencies and scurvy.
According to nutritionists, a person, consuming even 300 g of canned beans a day, can reduce blood cholesterol levels by 13-15%.
Features of culture
The root of the beans is tap-root, well developed, penetrating into the soil to a depth of 100-150 cm. The stem is erect, tetrahedral, weakly branching. Plant height from 30 to 140 cm. (Low-growing beans are usually more early maturing than tall ones). The leaves of the beans are complex, with 3-5 leaflets, have a small covering stipule and end not with antennae, but with a tip.
The flowers are collected in short clusters of 5-6 flowers, they are white with a black spot on the wings, but there are pods with red, yellow, brown, variegated and even blue flowers.
The fruits are 4 to 20 cm long. The pods are green, fleshy at a young age, and dark brown, leathery in mature beans. There are beans in which the walls of the fruit valves have a parchment layer, and there are those in which this layer is completely absent or very poorly developed. The fruits of the former crack when ripe, while the latter do not.
Bean seeds vary in shape, size, and color. Seed color varies from white to black.
According to the size of the seeds, beans are usually divided into two groups: fodder (small-seeded) and vegetable. Large-fruited beans are widespread in vegetable culture.
Beans are a long day plant. They are undemanding to heat - they germinate at 2 … 3 ° C. Seedlings tolerate frosts down to -4 ° C. Under favorable conditions, seedlings begin to appear 10-17 days after sowing. The best temperature for flowering and fruit formation is 15 ° C to 20 ° C.
Beans are a moisture-loving plant. For swelling and germination, seeds require moisture from 100 to 120% of their weight. Drought, even a short one, cannot be tolerated by these plants. The highest yields are obtained in years when there is a lot of rainfall from germination to flowering.
Bean seeds, under favorable storage conditions, give high germination even after 10-11 years.
Pods are self-pollinating plants, but cross-pollination is also possible. Their growing season is from 80 to 140 days.
In the North-West zone, there are very few zoned varieties of vegetable beans. These include varieties Russian black, Virovskie, Belorusskie, Velena.
Choosing a landing site
For beans, you need to allocate an area that is freed from snow early. They grow best in soils that can hold a lot of the moisture they need during sprouting, flowering, and pods. Heavy clay and loamy soils are suitable for them. Beans work well on drained peatlands. Light sandy soils are suitable only if it is possible to regularly water the crops, and if they are well fertilized and do not have a loose, easily permeable subsoil. However, the beans do not tolerate stagnant water.
They grow well on slightly acidic or neutral soils filled with organic fertilizers. They grow poorly on acidic soils.
The best predecessors for beans are row crops (potatoes, cabbage and others), under which organic fertilizers were applied. To reduce the risk of plant diseases, beans should not be returned to their old place earlier than after 4-5 years.
Beans are good predecessors themselves. They also work well when grown mixed with potatoes and other vegetable plants.
The main cultivation of the soil for beans should be deep (20-22 cm), since their root system penetrates deep into the subsoil. Plowing or digging up the soil must be done in the fall.
Presowing soil cultivation for beans is the same as for peas: harrowing to cover moisture, then cultivation with simultaneous harrowing in 1-2 tracks. On heavy, floating soils, in the spring you have to plow (if the spring is not dry) or deep cultivation.
Beans are very responsive to fertilization, especially organic ones. They can be successfully grown on fresh manure. Its introduction does not cause lodging of the stems. Manure is applied in autumn for plowing at the rate of 2-3 kg per 1 m².
Beans, like other legumes, absorb phosphorus well from hardly soluble phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphorite flour is applied in autumn at the rate of 50-60 g per 1 m², but it is even better to use it when laying composts. When composting, 15-20 kg of phosphate rock is added to 1 ton of manure.
Mineral fertilizers for beans are usually applied before pre-sowing cultivation: superphosphate 30-40 g, potassium salt 10-15 g, boron-magnesium fertilizers 10 g per 1 m².
Trace elements significantly increase the yield of green beans. The use of microfertilizers for pre-sowing treatment of beans seeds can be combined with dressing them with pesticides. When cultivating beans on copper-poor marsh and sandy soils, the use of copper fertilizers gives good results, as well as pre-sowing seed treatment with a weak solution of copper sulfate (0.1 g of copper sulfate per 1 kg of seeds).
Acidic soils must be limed.
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The beans are sown early, as they require a lot of moisture while germinating, and their seedlings are frost-resistant. With late sowing, seedlings are uncooperative, sparse, plants are more affected by diseases and pests.
The beans are sown in a wide-row single-line method with a row spacing of 40-45 cm or in a tape two-row method with a distance between the lines of 20 cm and between the ribbons of 45 cm. The seed from the seed in the row is laid out every 8-10 cm.
Beans can be grown in separate beds or placed on beds with other plants. In this case, they are less affected by aphids.
The seeding rate of seeds is 25-35 g per 1 m², and the seeding depth is 6-8 cm. Shallower seeding leads to lodging of plants.
Bean crop care
If the weather is dry during the sowing period, then immediately after the end of the sowing season, the soil should be rolled up. Harrowing is carried out 3-4 days after sowing in order to prevent the formation of a soil crust (and to control weeds). After the emergence of seedlings, the soil is harrowed 2-3 more times: the first time, when 2-3 leaves are formed on the plants, and the second - 5-7 days after the first. Harrowing for seedlings should be carried out across or at an angle to sowing in the afternoon, since at this time the plants are less fragile.
During the growing season, usually 2-3 inter-row loosening is carried out. At the first inter-row cultivation, the soil is loosened to a depth of 10-12 cm, and at the second - by 6-8 cm. At the second and third loosening, the plants are plowed up.
The beans require abundant watering and feeding. Top dressing is given during the first and second inter-row treatments. 10 g of superphosphate, 5 g of potassium salt and 5 g of ammonium nitrate are added per 1 m². If liquid fertilizing is given, then the concentration of the solution can be 0.3% (3 g of fertilizers per 1 liter of water). In order for the nutrients to be fully utilized by the plants, after feeding, abundant watering of the plants is carried out.
As soon as the beans are tied on the plants, the tops of the shoots with leaves are pinched, after which the growth of fruits is significantly accelerated. In addition, this agricultural practice prevents aphids from settling on bean plants, since aphids colonize primarily the delicate tops of the plants.
Protecting beans from pests and diseases
Beans are harmed by leguminous aphids, root weevils and weevils.
Bean aphid is a small insect of matte black and greenish color. Inhabits the tips of shoots and young leaves. Under favorable conditions it multiplies with great speed. Aphids feed on the juices of the youngest plants, which causes deformation of the leaves and curvature of the shoots.
Preventive control measures: destruction of weeds, pinching the tops of young shoots during the mass flowering of beans. To combat aphids, you can use a decoction of yarrow and wormwood. To prepare it, take a handful of dry yarrow and a little wormwood, pour boiling water and boil for 7-10 minutes. Cool and leave for 2-3 hours. The plants are sprayed with the resulting solution.
Nodule weevils - small gray beetles destroy whole seedlings or eat leaves from the edges. On garden plots, control measures are best limited by agrotechnical methods: alternating crops, carefully digging the site, removing post-harvest residues. It is advisable to sow with healthy seeds, remove weeds in a timely manner and provide favorable conditions for the normal growth and development of plants.
Legume weevil - mainly affects plants in the southern regions. We can meet in years with a very hot summer. It appears during flowering and lays eggs on young ovaries. After a few days, larvae emerge from the testicles, which penetrate into the seeds and feed on their contents. The weevil hibernates in the seeds, and if they are not disinfected before sowing, then it will reappear on the plants of the new crop.
To avoid damage by caryopsis, sowing must be carried out with healthy seeds. Affected seeds are separated from healthy seeds in a strong saline solution (3 kg of salt per 10 l of water). Damaged seeds float to the surface of the water.
On beans, the same diseases are found as on peas (rust, ascochitis, powdery mildew, bacteriosis), but there are also specific ones - black leg, brown spot. Cold, humid weather or drought contribute to their appearance.
Blackleg. The root collar of plants turns brown, becomes thinner, sometimes covered with a dirty white bloom, consisting of mycelium. Plants wither, droop, are easily pulled out of the soil.
Infection occurs through the soil where the fungus hibernates. The most severe damage is observed in cold and damp springs or when sowing is late.
Brown spot. On the leaves of the beans, spots of various shapes appear, in the middle of which pycnidia are formed. The leaves dry up and fall off. With severe damage, the disease spreads to beans and seeds.
Control measures for brown spot and blackleg include following correct agricultural practices and seed dressing.
Bean harvesting is started depending on their intended purpose. If they are used entirely (together with the valves), then they are removed when the valves are juicy, and the seeds reach a size of 1 cm.If only seeds are used for food, they are harvested in the phase of milk ripeness, when they reach their full size. In this phase, the beans are most delicious.
You should not be late with the start of cleaning. During harvesting, the seeds should not yet have a black groove where they attach to the pod. Harvested in 3-4 doses every 8-10 days. Begin to remove the beans from the bottom, gently breaking them off with your hands so as not to damage the plants. They are harvested for seeds when the pods turn black.
Beans with a parchment layer in the valves crack when ripe, the seeds spill out of them, so you need to hurry with harvesting these beans.
Mown plants are ripened in sheaves. When it rains, the beans are ripened and dried under a roof in a well-ventilated area; then the seeds are threshed, winnowed and dried.
Anyone who is looking for interesting vegetable, fruit, flower and medicinal plants can contact the online store: www.super-ogorod.7910.org or write to the address: 607060, Vyksa, Nizhny Novgorod region, dep. 2, P.O. Box 52 - to Andrey Viktorovich Kozlov.