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Video: Features Of Agricultural Technology Of Different Types Of Celery And The Use Of The Crop In Cooking
A trendy vegetable called celery
It just so happened that the now fashionable (and even a couple of decades ago, in fact, very few people in our country), celery has actually been known since those times. For example, in Ancient Greece, the winners of the Nemean Games were solemnly awarded with wreaths from the leaves of this plant, and in Ancient Egypt, celery was one of the obligatory attributes in various priestly rituals.
But not only - the ancient Egyptian and Roman doctors also resorted to the help of this healing culture. But celery began to be used later as a vegetable and spice plant, and in various countries, including Russia. In particular, it was widely used in our country in the 18th century, when it was an invariable component of a dressing made from dry white roots, traditionally added to soups and other dishes (the other two components were parsnip and parsley roots). However, after the revolution, interest in this plant gradually disappeared. And during the years of my childhood, very few people even saw and tried this plant alive - I was lucky, since my grandmother in the culinary issue sacredly adhered to many pre-revolutionary traditions.
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But now celery has become one of the fashionable plants, especially the root variety - you can see it on supermarket shelves, write about it in fashionable ladies' magazines, cook with it in popular television programs, etc. In other words, celery has found its second birth in Russia. There is nothing wrong with this - the plant is very useful, it just sometimes becomes ridiculous when celery is presented as some kind of exotic culture, previously as if completely unknown to anyone.
However, the current popularity of the plant is fully justified, because modern research by specialists has revealed a lot of advantages in this culture. In particular, celery is rich in vitamins A, B, C, and PP, while root vegetables contain potassium, calcium and phosphorus. In addition, nicotinic and glutamic acids are present in all parts of the plant, as well as mineral elements: magnesium, manganese, iron and zinc. And that's not all - celery is an aphrodisiac (which, by the way, was discovered back in ancient times) and helps with kidney and bladder diseases. In addition, it increases the overall tone of the body and helps to increase physical and mental performance, therefore celery is recommended for asthenia and chronic fatigue. It is clear that it makes sense to include such a healthy vegetable in the home menu more often.
What is celery like?
There are three types of celery: leaf, petiole and root.
Leafy celery forms many leaves and has highly branched roots - the leaves have an original spicy flavor and are used as a seasoning, the roots are completely inedible.
Petiole celery forms long, erect, strongly thickened leaf petioles with a wide base, characterized by delicate pulp and widely used in cooking. His root crop is presented only in its infancy.
Root celery forms juicy mouth-watering root vegetables that are used as a seasoning or in healthy and delicious salads.
In comparison with many other garden crops, celery is relatively unpretentious, however, in order to obtain high yields (this especially applies to root crops), some of its features should be taken into account.
1. Celery is very cold-resistant - young plants can withstand temperatures down to -3 … -6 ° C, and adults are able to endure autumn frosts down to -7 … -9 ° C (this does not apply to root crops, they are harvested before the onset of frost). However, the optimum temperature for seed germination is considered to be + 20 … + 22 ° C, and for the normal development of plants, a temperature of + 14 … + 16 ° C is required.
2. Loves sunlight and fertile soil, so this crop will grow well where cabbage or potatoes were grown last season (that is, crops for which a large amount of organic matter was introduced). However, on soils where manure was introduced this year, celery should not be planted; this plant does not tolerate acidic soils. If organic fertilizers were not applied under the predecessor crop, then it is advisable to do this during the autumn preparation of the celery ridge, adding ready-made compost to it (in the case of application in the fall, it is also possible to partially rotate).
3. Needs regular and abundant watering (especially in August and September) - if watering is insufficient, then it is basically impossible to get a normal harvest of leaves, petioles or root crops. With insufficient watering, the leaves of the plant turn pale, plant growth slows down, leaf and petiolate celery shoots, and the roots of root celery coarsen. At the same time, waterlogging is also unacceptable, therefore, celery fails in areas with high groundwater.
Celery agricultural technology secrets
Celery varieties differ in the length of the growing season. Leaf celery is ready to harvest in 80-100 days. It will take 100-120 days for petiolate celery to form crispy petioles, and 140-230 days for root celery to form full-fledged root crops. It is clear that one cannot do without seedlings. Leaf celery seedlings are best grown in a greenhouse, sowing their seeds in March along with cabbage seedlings, annual flowers and a variety of greens. It is more difficult with stalked and root celery - seedlings for them will have to be grown at home, and sowing seeds early - around the end of February. When receiving seedlings of leaf celery in an unheated biofuel greenhouse, it should be borne in mind that plants grown from seedlings exposed to low temperatures (below + 10 ° C) are prone to flowering,which negatively affects the quality of the crop. The optimum temperature for growing celery seedlings during the day is + 14… + 16 ° C and + 10… + 12 ° C at night.
Celery seeds do not germinate well, because they contain essential oils that inhibit the germination process. Therefore, to accelerate germination, it is more reasonable to sow seeds not dry, but seeds soaked in warm water for 1-2 hours. After drying the seeds removed from the water, they are evenly distributed over the soil surface, then carefully watered and until the seedlings appear, the seeds are not covered with soil, since the germination process is accelerated in the light. Seedlings usually appear only after 14-20 days. The container with the sown seeds is kept in a slightly opened plastic bag, and the soil in it is moistened as needed by spraying. After pecking the seeds, a thin (no more than 0.5 cm) layer of fertile soil is poured on top.
Further care of the seedlings involves moderate watering, maintaining the temperature at about + 16 ° C, and after the start of active growth, regular weekly feeding with a weak solution of complex fertilizer (for example, Kemira Lux). After the seedlings have two true leaves, they are dived into separate containers or directly into a greenhouse or greenhouse (if weather conditions permit).
Planting celery seedlings in the ground
Celery seedlings are planted in a permanent place after normal (for cold-resistant crops) heating of open ground - that is, around the end of May. At that time, the seedlings should already have 4-5 true leaves. Before planting, the plants are watered abundantly.
Root celery seedlings are planted with 50-60 cm aisles and a distance between plants in a row of 30 cm. Petiole and leaf celery are placed denser - according to the scheme: 40x20 cm.For leaf celery, a single planting may also make sense. The fact is that celery repels many pests, in particular, cabbage fly. Therefore, a good option is to plant celery on a cabbage ridge between cabbage plants. For root and petiole celery, this option does not work, since increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers are applied under the cabbage, including half-rotted manure, which will not allow the celery to form high-quality root crops and petioles, although the greens will be excellent.
Deepening of the apical bud of celery during planting is unacceptable. This is especially true for root celery, in which, when the apical bud is deepened, roots form on the entire surface of the root crop, which significantly reduces its size and impairs its taste.
Celery planting care
Taking care of celery is no more difficult than other root vegetables. Weeding, abundant watering, top dressing and destruction of the soil crust by regular loosening of row spacings (the latter, however, it is more reasonable to replace mulching with leaf litter).
However, to get good root crops, the soil must be very fertile, and top dressing will not hurt. In general, it is customary to feed celery twice during the season - two weeks after planting the seedlings, and then about another three weeks later. You can use complex organomineral fertilizers (Giant, Fertility, etc.), or just mineral fertilizers (for example, Kemira) for feeding. However, it should be borne in mind that in the first feeding it is advisable to slightly increase the dose of nitrogen in comparison with phosphorus and potassium (additionally shed with urea), and in the second, on the contrary, to increase the dose of phosphorus and potassium (sprinkle with ash and superphosphate, followed by loosening to embed superphosphate in soil). On soil rich in organic matter, the second top dressing can be done with only phosphorus and potassium.
After weeding and loosening, the petioled celery is spud with soil at the base of the petioles, and a month before harvesting - to the leaf blades. Thanks to this procedure, the petioles turn pale and acquire a more delicate taste. Such hilling is not carried out on plantings of leaf and root celery.
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Celery greens are ready for use within a month and a half after planting the seedlings, so you can cut them off during the entire growing season. It is only important to cut very carefully so as not to damage the central kidney. In the case of mass cutting of leaves (for example, for freezing or drying), the plants are then additionally fed with a solution of mullein or urea - then a new batch of fresh celery will be waiting for you in a month. Usually, during the season, you can have time to carry out 3-4 such massive cuts. All of this applies only to leaf celery. When growing petiole and root celery, it is undesirable to cut the leaves (unless quite a bit), since cutting slows down the formation of petioles and root crops.
The first root vegetables from root celery can be dug out at the beginning of August. It is not difficult to choose ripe roots in the garden, since the yellowing of the tips of the outer leaves indicates ripening. With the final harvest of root crops, you can not rush until autumn, however, the roots do not withstand negative temperatures, so they must be harvested before the onset of autumn cold weather.
Celery is a unique vegetable, because it has edible tops and roots. It can be eaten raw, seasoned in soups, fried and baked. Chopped greens are added to soups and salads, it's also a good idea to freeze or dry them for the winter. Petioles and roots can also be added to salads and soups, and a variety of vegetable stews and baked dishes can be prepared with them. For example, here are some simple recipes for delicious celery dishes.
Celery salad with apples
Celery - 1 kg, apples - 5 pcs., Vegetable oil - 5 tbsp. l., chicken breast (boiled) - 200 g, juice of 1 lemon, mayonnaise, salt and pepper - to taste.
Wash, peel and cut into thin strips the celery roots, sprinkle with lemon juice (to preserve color) and rub with salt until tender. Peel and seed the apples, also cut into thin strips and sprinkle with lemon juice. Chop the chicken into small pieces and mix with apples and celery. Season the salad with mayonnaise.
Celery baked in sour cream
Celery (medium root, because there are roots and over a kilogram in weight) - 4 pcs., Sour cream - 1 glass, wheat flour - 1 tablespoon, cheese (grated) - 2 tablespoons, salt.
Cut the peeled celery roots into noodles and boil in salted water until tender. Drain the water. Put the celery in a greased dish, pour over sour cream mixed with wheat flour, sprinkle with grated cheese. Bake in the oven.
Celery stewed with tomatoes
Celery (medium root) - 6 pcs., Tomatoes - 4 pcs., Vegetable oil - 3 tablespoons, sour cream - 2 tablespoons, flour - 1 tablespoon, sugar - 1 tablespoon, parsley (greens), dill - to taste, salt.
Peel the boiled celery, cut into cubes, fry in vegetable oil, add the peeled chopped tomatoes, sprinkle with flour, salt, simmer until tender. Add sugar, sour cream, finely chopped parsley and dill to the finished dish.
Chicken with rice and celery
Chicken breasts - 300 g, egg (protein) - 1 pc., Flour - 1 tbsp. l., stalked celery - 1 sprig, red pepper - 1 pod, ginger root - 4 pieces, onion - 2 pcs., vegetable oil - 1.5 tbsp. l., soy sauce - 2 tbsp. l., cognac - 1.5 tbsp. l., strong chicken broth - 2 tbsp. l., boiled rice - 500 g.
Thinly cut the chicken meat, salt, add salt and flour. Chop celery, red pepper, ginger and onion finely. Heat oil in a frying pan and fry the meat until tender. Put it on a dish. Put celery, pepper, ginger and onion in a frying pan. Fry all this for about half a minute, then combine with meat. Add soy sauce, cognac and broth and heat again. Serve with hot rice.