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Cultivation, Varieties And Use Of Medicinal Hyssop
Cultivation, Varieties And Use Of Medicinal Hyssop

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Video: Hyssop The Holy Herb from the Bible "Cleanse Me with Hyssop", Hyssopus officinalis- 2023, February
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Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis L), growing conditions, varieties, use in medicine and culinary

Hyssop
Hyssop

Hyssopus officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis L.) is a herbaceous perennial plant in the family of lamines. It is a medicinal, aromatic, spicy and ornamental plant with a strong balsamic scent. It is also called hisop, kusop, yusefka, blue St. John's wort.

Hyssop comes from the hot regions of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. In Europe, it became widespread in the early Middle Ages thanks to the Benedictine monks. In the book of books - the Bible (Old Testament) this plant is mentioned twice.

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The health code of the medieval physician Arnold from Villanova "Problems of Nutrition, Therapy and Human Life Extension" states:

“The herb that is called hyssop cleanses the chest.

Hyssop is useful for the lungs, if it is boiled together with honey, And they say that it gives the person an excellent color”…

There is evidence that Hippocrates used it in medical practice to treat heart disease. In medieval Europe (10th century), hyssop was also known primarily as a medicine against eye diseases and as an ingredient in drinks that improve the health of the elderly.

Now, on the territory of the former USSR, it is found in the wild in the south of Russia and Ukraine, in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, as well as in Central Asia.

Hyssop meaning

For food, he uses grass or flowering tops, which are cut 1-2 times over the summer. Hyssop greens are rich in ascorbic acid - about 170 g per 100 g fresh leaves. Hyssop leaves have a high content of phytoncides.

An essential oil is obtained from hyssop. It has a herbal-spicy scent and floral nuances. Its leaves accumulate 0.3-2%. Hyssop essential oil contains approximately 50% of pinecamfene, as well as flavone hisperidin, ursolic and omanolic acids, pinene and limonene, 8% tannins, glycosides, hesperidin, diosmin, hyssopin, resins, gum pigments, etc.

It should be borne in mind that even with careful drying, the hyssop herb loses some of the aroma, so it is better to use young and fresh leaves.

Hyssop is a valuable honey plant. The honey obtained from this plant is classified as one of the best varieties, so hyssop is cultivated in apiaries. In addition, hyssop is used to attract bees during swarming, for which the hives are rubbed with fresh grass.

Hyssop repels some pests of garden crops, for example, the cabbage scoop.

During the flowering period, the hyssop plants have an elegant appearance. It is often grown as an ornamental plant.

Essential oils and greens of hyssop are used in the liqueur and vodka and perfume industries.

Features of growth and development, requirements for growing conditions

The hyssop plant is a semi-shrub 50-60 cm high. Its root is woody. Stems are erect, branched, tetrahedral, woody at the base. Leaves are opposite, small, short-petiolate, linear-lanceolate, whole-edged, rigid, raised at the edges, dark green in color, on both sides they are covered with glandular hairs secreting essential oil.

Flowers are two-lipped, small, sit in the axils of the upper leaves, they are arranged in 3-7 pieces in the form of one-sided semi-whorls, forming a spike-shaped inflorescence in the upper part of the stem. The calyx of the flower is five-toothed, the corolla is blue, blue, blue-violet, crimson, pink, sometimes white. Hyssop blooms in August - September

The fruit is a triangular oblong-ovate nutlet. The hyssop fruit is incorrectly called seeds. The surface of the seeds is smooth, the color is dark, grayish-brown. The length of the seeds is 2 mm, the thickness is 0.8-1 mm. 1 g contains 800-1000 of them. The seeds have a tart spicy taste and aroma. Seed germination is high - up to 80%. Their validity lasts up to 5 years. When sown with dry seeds, seedlings appear 8-14 days after sowing.

Hyssop is a very unpretentious plant. It is cold-resistant. The minimum temperature for seed germination is + 2 … + 3 ° С. The plant winters well in open ground, even in the northern regions of the Non-Chernozem zone of Russia in non-flooded areas. For the accumulation of biologically active substances, it needs a sufficient amount of light.

Hyssop is drought-resistant and grows well on moderately moist soils. He needs soils light in texture with a neutral solution reaction. Hyssop is not very picky about soil fertility.

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Hyssop varieties

The following varieties of hyssop are recommended for production: Accord (pink), Amethyst (with pink flowers), Hoarfrost (white), Doctor, Otradny Semko (dark blue), Dawn, Pink fog (soft pink). Amateur gardeners often grow local populations that differ in flower color.

Growing hyssop

Hyssop
Hyssop

We grow it in gardens, orchards, or in large pots on a windowsill or balcony. In the conditions of a garden plot, it can be propagated by dividing the bush, as well as by cuttings and even planting with segments of roots. In industrial production, it is cultivated in the field by sowing seeds or from pre-grown seedlings.

Seeds are sown in early spring on beds with row spacing of 30-50 cm. The seeding rate of seeds is 0.1 g / m2. The depth of planting with soil is 0.3-1 cm. Subsequently, 1-2 thinning is done, leaving 20-30 cm between plants in a row. When growing by seedlings, seeds are sown in pots in March-April. At the age of 50-60 days, the seedlings are planted in a permanent place. Hyssop tolerates transplantation well.

It is recommended to cultivate hyssop in one place for no more than 5 years. Usually after 3-4 years old plants are divided and planted a little deeper than they were before transplanting. Young plantings grow rapidly. Less commonly, propagation of hyssop by cuttings is used: the upper part of the shoots is planted in wet sand or peat, watered. Shoots take root quickly.

Plant care is uncomplicated. It consists of loosening row spacings, weeding in rows and several additional fertilizing with full mineral fertilizer per season. Plants are fed in early spring after overwintering and after each cut. A month before the onset of autumn frosts, fertilizing is done with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

Hyssop plants are sometimes affected by rust and rhizoctonia. Measures to combat these diseases are only preventive: alternating crops, removing plant debris, using only healthy plants for vegetative propagation. Remove weeds in a timely manner. Planting should not be thickened, since insufficient aeration also leads to disease damage to plants.

Hyssop is harvested at the beginning of flowering; under favorable climatic conditions and good agricultural technology, the cut is repeated.

Application in medicine

Hyssop is a remedy for excessive perspiration. It has a strengthening effect in conjunctivitis, inflammation of the urinary tract, bronchi, asthma. It promotes digestion, stimulates appetite, strengthens the stomach. Hyssop has a mild diuretic, carminative effect. Hyssop tea is used as a firming drink for the elderly.

In the pharmaceutical industry, from the medicinal hyssop (and this is how its name is translated from Latin), essential oil is obtained, decoctions, teas, and extracts are prepared. In folk medicine, hyssop is known as an expectorant for coughs, chronic bronchitis, and bronchial asthma. The herb infusion is used for tuberculosis. It is used for chronic inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract, poor digestion, as a tonic, wound healing, regulating metabolism and antihelminthic agent.

The herb and roots are used for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, bronchial asthma, neuroses, gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism, angina pectoris, excessive sweating, for expelling worms, for compresses for bruises, inflammatory diseases of the joints, as a wound healing agent.

In Bulgarian folk medicine, the medicinal hyssop is used for anemia, constipation, inflammatory eye diseases, diabetic periodontitis, and initial cataract.

Outwardly, the hyssop infusion is used for washing wounds and ulcers, mucous membranes of the eyes, conjunctivitis, for rinsing the mouth, and also in the form of lotions for the purpose of resorption of subcutaneous hemorrhages of traumatic origin.

An infusion of hyssop herb is used internally or externally for lotions, compresses, irrigation of wounds (2 teaspoons of finely chopped hyssop herb are poured with a glass of boiling water, infused for 30 minutes and filtered).

Tincture of herbal hyssop medicinal drink a teaspoon three times a day with tea for bronchitis or asthma attacks (a tablespoon of dry chopped hyssop herb is poured with a glass of vodka, insisted for 3 weeks in a dark place at room temperature, filtered).

Cooking applications

Hyssop has a pleasant aroma and a tart, spicy aftertaste. It goes well with other spicy crops. Because of the pungent smell, hyssop greens are added to dishes in small quantities. For a long time, hyssop has been used in food as a seasoning for meat dishes, vegetable soups, snacks, salads, to improve the taste of dishes made from beans, beans, and peas. Hyssop leaves are used for pickling tomatoes and cucumbers.

Hyssop occupies an important place in dietary nutrition. It is used in the preparation of tender fried veal, which gives a tart, spicy taste. It is suitable for cooking fried pork, stews, beef zraz, bean and potato soups and marinades. Many people like to add hyssop to stuffed eggs and sausages. A good taste is given by hyssop dumplings made from poultry liver according to the usual recipes with the addition of only 2-3 leaves of this plant. The dishes in which the dumplings are boiled should not be covered.

Hyssop improves the taste of fresh cucumber and tomato salads. Young aromatic greens are a good seasoning for vegetable salads and vinaigrette. For cottage cheese lovers, sprinkle it on top or mix it with finely chopped fresh hyssop leaves. Finely chopped greens of hyssop are flavored with mayonnaise. It is also used for the production of liqueurs.

Here are some interesting recipes:

Greenery salad with medicinal hyssop

Green onions - 30 g, parsley - 10 g, dill - 10 g, sowing salad - 50 g, hyssop leaves - 20 g, sour cream - 20 g, egg, salt to taste.

Finely chop parsley, onion, dill, lettuce, fresh hyssop leaves. Stir everything, season with sour cream, salt to taste. Serve to the table, sprinkled with chopped boiled egg on top.

Dry Hyssop Leaves Seasoning

Young shoots at the beginning of flowering are dried in the shade, then crushed into powder and used as a spicy seasoning for various dishes.

Hyssop root seasoning with coriander

The roots of the hyssop are dried, ground into powder, mixed with an equal amount of powder from ground coriander seeds. The mixture is used as a seasoning for meat, fish and vegetable dishes and as a component for canning vegetables.

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