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About Varieties And Hybrids Of White Cabbage
About Varieties And Hybrids Of White Cabbage

Video: About Varieties And Hybrids Of White Cabbage

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Video: CABBAGE PRODUCTION tips with Elizabeth Benjamin 2023, February
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About cabbage breeding in general

White cabbage
White cabbage

It is a thankless task - to write about cabbage, its price on the market is low. Yes, in fact, I was not going to write about this culture, if not for one chance meeting. I love growing beans in the garden, the culture is very healthy and tasty, and most importantly, there are no problems with them, and they also enrich the soil with nitrogen.

Our breeders sometimes delighted us with interesting varieties, however, it was in 1993. For such an interesting variety of beans, I decided to go to a very famous agricultural institute near Moscow, to get an author's reproduction of beans seeds. You will not surprise us with beans without a parchment layer, but sugar beans for canning are already interesting, they are much easier to grow than beans, they are not afraid of cold weather, they can be combined with potato plantings.

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The Japanese love to grow beans, they have many different varieties, perhaps our breeders used Japanese motifs as a donor, but this applies to some genes that control the parchment layer. I feel like I’ve gotten really into the topic of beans in this description, and I’m not going to get to the cabbage.

I arrived at the institute early in the morning, when everything was still closed, and there was no one to find out where the beans of interest to me were. While examining the sights of the institute town, I noticed that a door was open in one of the outbuildings with the inscription "Laboratory for the selection of cabbage crops". Of course, cabbage is not beans, but you can find out where to buy the seeds I am interested in from local "old-timers". The inhabitant of this "cabbage laboratory" explained in detail where the beans of interest to me are, and after receiving them, he invited me to visit the cabbage crop breeding department. Moreover, I have expressed not very enthusiastic reviews about Russian varieties.

We continued the discussion about cabbage in the academician's office. It was clear to me that the institute is doing a lot to preserve our traditional varieties. Without diminishing the importance of this work, I expressed my opinion that many Dutch hybrids are superior to our varieties both in yield and in disease resistance, however, I could only refer to my experience in growing this crop.

The academician did not argue with my remarks about these qualities, he simply reminded me that at the Vienna Agricultural Exhibition in 1875, cabbage varieties created by breeder E.A. Grachev, were awarded the honorary medal "For progress". Heads of cabbage reached 70 cm in diameter, had a high density, whiteness, excellent taste. Unfortunately, this variety has been lost.

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White cabbage
White cabbage

Many interesting domestic varieties, and not only cabbage, have been irretrievably lost. Perhaps, modern hybrids have stability, increased productivity, excellent appearance, but the taste, aroma disappear without a trace somewhere in the genetic codes. In addition, hybridization is usually carried out in the southern regions, and sowing for products is in the northern. Some traits, especially such subtle ones as taste, aroma, can disappear during heterosis and phenotype development.

Of course, preserving the variety is a very difficult task, for example, up to 70% of atypical plants are rejected in the brood plot during selection for seeds, plus spatial isolation. If varietal seeds are obtained in compliance with all the rules of selection selection, then the products from such seeds will be of high quality. It's not the variety, it's how the variety is made. Dutch firms have more opportunities for quality work. We do not have enough enthusiasm for this.

I mentioned the Slava 1305 variety, once planted by my grandmother, I believed that there is no better sauerkraut than this variety. The academician asked the assistant to bring me a small bag of elite seeds of this variety, so that I could plant it in my garden and make sure that it was not a question of the variety, but how this variety was obtained. We also touched on one topic, after discussing which I came to the conclusion that cabbage must be planted in my garden.

The cabbage plant has many diseases and pests. In the industrial production of cabbage, various protective chemicals are used, which are not always harmless to humans. Research is now underway to create varieties that would not accumulate toxic chemicals in plant tissues.

This is in the future, but for now we are buying cabbage in the market. The laws of the market economy are already known to many, so it is better to grow cabbage in your garden. This does not mean that fertilizers and pesticides cannot be used, but on our personal plot we usually use expensive, high-quality chemicals specially permitted for these purposes.

On a scale of hundreds of hectares, economic considerations are often driven. We cannot do without eating cabbage. We have almost decoded the human genome and we know that not all genes that we have are synthesizing proteins. The reason for this phenomenon is the direct connection of a person with the environment. If there is a lot of this or that food substance in the body, the expression of the corresponding gene is inhibited or stopped, and it becomes "silent", since there are no regulatory systems that make it work.

So, if a dog synthesizes vitamin C, then a person can get it only with food, since several thousand years ago he was a herbivore. What can you do, evolution is lagging behind the changes in our way of life. Experts from the International Agency for Cancer Research concluded that eating cabbage at least once a week reduces the risk of this disease in patients with an inactive variant of two genes, and there are 70% of such among people. These genes are GSTM1 and GSTT1; their function is to protect the body from certain types of toxins.

cabbage
cabbage

Cabbages - white cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and others - are rich in substances called isothiocyanates, which act as an effective defense against lung cancer. Usually isothiocyanates are removed from the body by "cleaners", which are enzymes produced by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes.

Unfortunately, from the Moscow region I had to get to Moscow, and the electric trains have a four-hour interval, so I had to interrupt the conversation with the academician so as not to miss the train. From the window of the train car I looked at the fleeing landscapes of the Moscow Region landscape with a predominance of modern cottages, and after all, once state farm fields with plantings of vegetables prevailed here.

As time goes on, priorities change, but the most interesting thing in the modern devilry of design is one simple pattern: the love of a Russian person for the land. Only now the Russians are now divided into "new" and "old". As they say, to each his own. Although it is worth remembering one Chinese proverb: "If one fine morning, a thoughtful, intelligent person begins to remember what gave him the greatest pleasure in life, then food will come first."

Interesting varieties and hybrids of white cabbage

White cabbage
White cabbage

Without going into the details of the historical significance of white cabbage, such as the chronicle stories about Ivan the Terrible, who, once having dinner with Prince Gvozdev, was so angry with him for something that he ordered to pour a whole bowl of hot cabbage soup on the prince's head. Showdowns among the "historical new Russians" existed in those distant times, cabbage was highly valued by the tsars, and now showdowns are taking place because of cabbage, but not white cabbage.

Let's move on from the historical and social interpretation to the cultivation of this culture. Let's omit its botanical and morphological description, more than one monograph has been written about this. It will be more interesting for the gardener to know which variety is better to choose and how to plant. Immediately I will make a reservation that I will give a description of only those varieties and hybrids that we usually grow on our site. We give preference in choosing a variety of white cabbage to Dutch hybrids, although we also plant some Russian varieties.

Of the early ripening hybrids, Surprise F1 has shown itself well with a growing season of 55-57 days, a head of cabbage with an attractive bright color, dense, weighing up to 1.5 kg. Delicate salads are made from it, the stump is very small. The head of cabbage sets very quickly, however, they say, in the field for more than three weeks after ripening, it does not persist, it cracks. We have this cabbage in a week goes to salads.

Parel F1 with a growing season of 60 days, a round head of cabbage, bright green, retains marketability in the field for more than three weeks, slightly inferior to Surprise in its "salad" taste, but in fresh cabbage soup it is excellent. It is unlikely that in Germany with such cabbage soup for a long time the rite of fortune-telling on the betrothed would have survived. And the ceremony was like this. If the girl wanted to know the name of her betrothed, then she had to take a mouthful of cabbage soup from the first cabbage cooked of the year and spit them out at the first intersection. Then you need to wait for the first passer-by and ask his name, it was the name of her betrothed.

From domestic early varieties of cabbage, we plant June. Usually, when planted with the author's seeds of the elite class, this variety justifies itself - it is very resistant to frosts down to -5 ° C, it is little affected by the cabbage fly. Very fragrant cabbage in salads and fresh cabbage soup. When seedlings are planted in early May, it ripens in the third decade of June. Authors of the variety: E.M. Popova, T.V. Smolin.

From mid-early hybrids, preference was given to Bronco F1 of Dutch selection with a growing season of 80 days. Productive hybrid, rounded heads of cabbage. Covering leaves with a dense head of cabbage weighing 4 kg. In the field, it can keep its presentation for two months. What is important - it does not lose marketability with a lack of moisture. Resistant to diseases, adverse factors. The earliest hybrid that can be fermented.

Of the mid-season, these are Dutch hybrids, for example, Krautman F1. Very reliable hybrid with a growing season of 100 days. Heads of cabbage are large, dense, weighing up to 8 kg. The peculiarity of this hybrid is the ability to somewhat thicken the planting, the quality and size of the heads are preserved. No cracking, one of the best for pickling. Stored in the basement for up to 5-6 months.

Century F1 - in appearance and properties, similar to the Krautman hybrid, but resistant to Fusarium. Hurricane F1 has a good long-term storage capacity - up to 7-8 months with a short growing season of 98 days, resistant to fusarium. Suitable for fermentation. Heads of cabbage weighing 4-5 kg. We plant Slava 1305 from domestic varieties. Although this variety is stored for two months, it is one of the best in salting qualities. Heads of cabbage are round, weighing 3-5 kg, medium density. Usually, products from author's seeds of the elite class are of good quality. Authors of the variety: E.M. Popova, N.V. Belorossova.

Of the late-ripening hybrids, Amtrak F1 has proven itself well on our site with a vegetation period of 145 days. It is stored with us from harvest to harvest, the most resistant hybrid to fusarium, dense heads of cabbage, weight 3-5 kg.

The Kilaton F1 hybrid is a real find for those gardeners who cannot get rid of the keel in the garden, including on peat soils. The growing season is 140 days, the weight of the head is 3-4 kg. It has an increased yield. Beautiful green external color of the head of cabbage even after very long (12 months) storage. Excellent internal structure of the head, hybrid suitable for pickling, highest keel resistance.

Read the next part. The practice of growing white cabbage →

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