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Video: Winter And Spring Garlic: Reproduction And Diseases, Planting Schemes
Garlic is the king of spices
Garlic is an irreplaceable spicy crop in every vegetable garden. And this is not accidental, because without it, practically no workpiece can be made; without garlic, many dishes will become bland and not so tasty; and the medicinal properties of garlic mean a lot, especially in our harsh climate.
Winter and spring - what to choose?
The fundamental difference between winter garlic and spring garlic is that winter garlic is planted in autumn, and spring garlic - in spring.
But there are other nuances as well. Winter garlic gives large heads with large chives, but it is worse stored, although there are many tricks to help preserve it. Spring garlic forms small heads that are perfectly stored until the next harvest. In addition, winter garlic is arrowed, i.e. forms air bulbs, which, along with cloves, this culture can be propagated, and spring does not have such a feature.
In other words, there is no perfect garlic, both winter and spring have both pluses and minuses, and it is up to the gardeners themselves to decide which one to stop, depending on the specific circumstances. If you want to get a bigger harvest, choose winter garlic, and if you cannot preserve it, choose spring garlic. Although it is probably more reasonable, perhaps, an intermediate option: to grow winter garlic for summer and autumn harvests, when a lot of garlic is required, and leave spring garlic for storage for winter and spring, with which there are much fewer problems during storage. Landing landing strife
As noted above, winter garlic can be propagated in two ways: with chives and air bulbs, and spring garlic - only with chives.
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Reproduction by teeth - pros and cons
This is a traditional method used by most gardeners, which allows you to get a harvest of garlic in one year. This is a plus compared to bulb propagation. However, when planting with teeth, there are two disadvantages.
1. Irrational use of planting material, which is especially critical for winter garlic, because there the teeth can be very large. It happens that there are only four cloves in a large onion, which means that you use a quarter of the grown crop for planting, which is still not very profitable.
To reduce the percentage of the harvest that goes then for planting, you should not take the largest cloves - they are much more profitable to use in autumn harvests, when you have to peel a lot of garlic.
2. Planting garlic infected with diseases (primarily bacteriosis). Such garlic does not take root well and does not overwinter well. As a result, the seedlings are thinned out in spring, and the leaves on the remaining plants begin to turn yellow early, which will automatically lead to a decrease in the yield and significant spoilage during storage.
Keep in mind that by occupying the garden with planting material affected by the disease of garlic, you are making a serious mistake that threatens to spread the infection. In order to reduce the percentage of diseased garlic bulbs to a minimum, a number of rules should be followed:
- carefully select planting material: you can not take for planting teeth from the head, in which at least one yellowed lobule or clove with sores, or a glassy-transparent lobule is found;
- do not plant garlic in a crop rotation after garlic or any onion crops;
- before planting, it is necessary to pickle the chives first in a solution of sodium chloride (3 tablespoons per 5 liters of water for 1-2 minutes), then immediately in a solution of copper sulfate (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water), and then plant this teeth without washing;
- garlic must be harvested well ripe, but with intact integumentary scales;
- when harvesting, do not pull out of the ground without undermining, do not cut, because if it is damaged, the heads rot;
- it is necessary to dehydrate the garlic after harvesting as quickly and very carefully;
- during storage, garlic must be sorted out, be sure to remove diseased heads.
Signs of bacteriosis in garlic and factors in the spread of the disease
Infection of the heads of garlic begins in the field, where the infection persists in the soil on plant debris not collected in previous years during harvesting.
Signs of disease when harvesting garlic under the covering scales are not visible, although sometimes some heads are slightly yellowish from the bottom. Bacteriosis reaches mass development during storage. Deep brown sores or streaks appear on the garlic cloves. The tissue of the affected clove acquires a pearlescent yellow color, the lobule becomes slightly transparent, as if frozen. Garlic gives off a characteristic putrid smell.
Only ripened, but undried garlic is mainly affected, especially with mechanical damage during harvesting, transportation, etc.
Storing heads in warm and humid conditions will increase disease progression and may lead to re-infection of adjacent heads.
What teeth to take for landing?
The cloves should be taken only from healthy bulbs, otherwise they may not grow at all, and if they do, they will give a crop infected with diseases, which is likely to die during storage.
Teeth should be taken only from large heads - a clove taken from a large head is potentially ready to form a large head again. In addition, only the outer teeth should be taken, because the inner teeth will yield less yield.
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Schemes for planting garlic with chives
We all know very well how to plant garlic - row by row and at a fixed distance from each other. More precisely, since the times of these, there was only one way of planting it - the usual single-tier planting, which is recommended in a variety of books on gardening. However, there are other recommendations. For example, the specialists of the Volgograd State Agricultural Academy recommend switching from the classic single-tier to two-tier landing.
Option one - a classic single-tier planting of garlic in rows
With this planting, the garlic is planted at the same depth in 6-7 cm rows. The distance between the rows and between the teeth in a row is 15 cm.
The second option is a two-tiered planting of garlic in rows
With such a planting, two cloves of garlic are planted in one nest: the first - to a depth of 13-14 cm, and the second - to a depth of 6-7 cm. The distance between rows and between teeth in a row is 15 cm.
Option three - two-tier planting of garlic in a checkerboard pattern
In this case, the garlic is planted in a checkerboard pattern, but at different depths and, in comparison with the previous version, in different nests. Odd rows of garlic are planted to a depth of 6 cm with a distance between the cloves in a row of 15 cm.The distance between odd rows is also 15 cm.In addition, even rows are placed between the odd rows, in which the cloves are also planted, but already at a depth of 13 cm, so, so that in relation to the teeth of odd rows, they are staggered. The distance between the teeth in even rows is also 15 cm.
Both new methods (second and third) allow more rational use of the area and get almost twice the yield per unit area compared to planting in the traditional way. In addition, when planting in two tiers, it is more likely to save part of the crop during a harsh and little snow winter, when it comes to winter garlic. This technology of planting garlic is patented by the developers, so enthusiastic gardeners can fully test it on one of the garlic ridges.
Experiments were carried out by specialists of the Volgograd State Agricultural Academy on the light chestnut soil of the Volgograd region. Before planting, the soil was dug to a depth of 20 cm and organic fertilizers were applied at the rate of 10 kg / m².
A special device has been developed to mechanize the planting of garlic in strict observance of all distances and depths of cloves. It is made of wood in the form of a square with a side of 1.05 m and with many pins.
By installing the required pins of different lengths and the corresponding displacement of the structure, the garlic can be planted in different patterns. Thanks to the device, it was not necessary to manually make a hole for planting each clove: one press of the structure on the soil - and a whole series of holes is ready, and you can already plant. You can do it easier and get by with a pair of ordinary rails: install pins 13 cm long on the first, and 6 cm on the second.
The germination rate of garlic according to all planting schemes in spring was almost 100%. In April, the seedlings were fed with Azofoska at the rate of 7 g / m² per horizon. During the growing season, the garlic was given six irrigations in addition to natural precipitation, after each irrigation the soil was loosened. The largest yield (4.4 kg / m²) of an acceptable size of bulbs (40 g) with a relatively low consumption of planting material (0.54 kg / m²) was obtained when planting according to scheme 3. The increase in yield compared to control plantings was 62.7% … When planting according to scheme 2, we got lower productivity - 3.7 kg of garlic per 1 m², i.e. in comparison with the control beds, the yield increase was only 38.2%. This is due to the fact that plants in the same nest oppressed each other.
In conclusion, we can say that, compared to the usual single-tier planting, both two-tier schemes turned out to be effective, but gardeners should still choose a two-tier staggered planting as the most profitable in terms of obtaining the maximum yield per unit area.
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