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Video: Growing White Cabbage: Planting Seedlings And Care
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Read the previous part: White cabbage: useful properties and growing conditions
Choosing a site for planting cabbage and preparing the soil
Soils are diverted under the cabbage, which are not flooded by melt water, are adapted to drain excess moisture in spring and are located close to the source of water for irrigation. It is placed as the first crop for organic fertilization, as well as after legumes, cucumber, squash, tomato, onion, vegetable roots, and potatoes. Cabbage is a good precursor for cucumber, tomato, onion, root vegetables, as it leaves the soil free of weeds.
After turnips, rutabagas, radishes, radishes and cabbage, it cannot be placed earlier than three years later, as well as grown after cabbage, because infection accumulates in the soil, and overwintered pests infect young plants. Cabbage can be the first plant on newly reclaimed land after proper preparation.
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The nature of the autumn cultivation depends on the previous crop and the degree of weediness of the site. After vegetable crops, it should be freed from plant residues. From autumn, the area for cabbage should be dug to a depth of 20-25 cm. It is especially important to carry out this work for early cabbage. The dug-up earth is left without leveling, because in this case, the soil freezes, leading to its loosening, as well as to the death of harmful insects.
Early spring tillage consists in loosening the surface layer, digging or processing with moldboard tools such as a flat cutter to a depth of 15-18 cm. To preserve moisture reserves in the soil in early spring, loosen the soil surface with a rake to a depth of about 5 cm. This work is not at all superfluous … The upper parts of the soil capillaries are destroyed, and with the help of a layer of loose soil, which has closed on top, moisture remains in the lower horizons without eroding.
By the time of planting of late and mid-ripening varieties of cabbage, weeds may already appear, in this case additional processing is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm. The use of cutters and motor-cultivators for soil preparation contributes to the creation of a fine-crumbly, well-loosened arable layer. In our North-West, cabbage is grown on ridges or ridges up to 20 cm high.
White cabbage as a high-yielding crop takes out a large amount of nutrients from the soil with the harvest. Compared to other vegetable plants, it is more demanding on nitrogen. When growing early varieties, a high nitrogen background is required with a moderate phosphorus-potassium nutrition, mid-ripening varieties need large doses of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, and later varieties for storage require an increased supply of potassium and phosphorus with a good supply of nitrogen.
At the beginning of the growing season, cabbage plants of all varieties absorb nitrogen more strongly, and during the formation of heads of cabbage - potassium and phosphorus. However, the lack of phosphorus in the soil in the first period of plant growth causes irreversible physiological disturbances that cannot be eliminated by subsequent application of even high doses of phosphorus fertilizers.
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The introduction of increased doses of nitrogen on soddy-podzolic soils for early cabbage increases the early and 25-30% total yield of cabbage by 2-2.5 times. When growing late varieties for storage, the introduction of potassium is effective, and increased doses of nitrogen negatively affect the preservation of products. With a lack of potassium, cabbage during storage develops punctate necrosis.
Cabbage, especially late varieties, consumes nutrients from the soil for a long time and therefore responds well to the application of organic fertilizers. The significant need of cabbage for nutrients, especially nitrogen from the second month after planting seedlings, suggests that high yields of cabbage can be obtained only with the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. As a result of this combination, good cabbage yields are obtained with moderate application rates. For medium and late cabbage, apply 4-6 kg of manure or compost per 1 m² with continuous application. If there is a lack of fertilizer, you can add it to the holes when planting. Then you will need 1-2 kg for 1 m². Fresh manure applied in spring under early cabbage is ineffective, because it does not have time to decompose during the growing season of plants. Under it bring up to 3-4 kg / m² of well-rotted manure or humus.
In addition to organic fertilizers in the non-black earth zone, 20-30 g of ammonium nitrate, 30-40 g of superphosphate and 15-20 g of potassium chloride per 1 m² are applied under cabbage. It has been established that on sandy loams and light loams for cabbage, potash fertilizer is of great importance, on heavy loams - phosphorus, on floodplain soils - a combination of potash fertilizers with nitrogen, on peaty soils - a combination of potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
On undecomposed peatlands, it is also effective to apply small doses of nitrogen. Organic fertilizers and 2/3 of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall before digging or for plowing. By the time the cabbage grows most at this depth, the bulk of the suction roots will be located. In addition, the soil here is usually more moist so the fertilizer can be better utilized by the plants. The rest of the mineral fertilizers are applied in the spring for loosening (spring digging), during planting in holes or in top dressing. This enhances the nutrition of young plants, in which the root system is concentrated in the upper soil layer, and the maturation of the heads of cabbage is accelerated.
On acidic soils for cabbage, lime must be added. This technique not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also increases the effectiveness of organic and mineral fertilizers. Doses of lime depend on the mechanical composition of the soil, its acidity and range from 400 g to 1 kg per 1 m².
Growing cabbage seedlings
White cabbage in the non-chernozem zone is grown almost exclusively by seedlings. Good seedlings are the key to obtaining a high yield of cabbage. The earliest production is produced by seedlings grown in pots. Potted seedlings take root faster, accelerate ripening and increase yields. A powerful root system develops in the pots, which is preserved during transplanting seedlings, there is a large supply of nutrients necessary for the growth and development of plants at the first stage.
To obtain a good harvest, it is necessary to use high quality calibrated seeds. Elite and hybrid seeds come already treated with pesticides, so they are not disinfected. If necessary, before sowing, they can be kept in water with a temperature of 50 ° C for 20 minutes, maintaining the temperature at the same level, followed by cooling with water and drying.
Seeds of early ripening varieties are sown in early March in seed boxes. The thickness of the soil layer for growing the school should be 10-12 cm. For the prevention of plant diseases with the keel and "black leg", chalk is added when preparing the soil (100 g per box).
A school of early cabbage seedlings can be grown on a cold, well-lit window; during the day, a box with plants can be taken out to the loggia. Seedlings of mid-season and late varieties are grown in an unheated film greenhouse, greenhouse or warm nursery when sowing seeds in late March-early April. When growing seedlings, you need to ensure that the soil is not contaminated with pathogens of keela and other diseases. The land for growing seedlings must be used fresh, in no case should you take from cabbage and other plants of this family. Seeds are sown in boxes in rows at a distance of 5-6 cm.
1-2 g of seeds are sown in each box. On the 4-5th day after germination, the cotyledons take a horizontal position, at 7-12th, in the phase of the beginning of the appearance of the first true leaf, the plant develops lateral roots. At this time, they are usually dived. Picking allows you to get by in the initial period of growing seedlings with a smaller area. It is carried out into the heated soil of pots with a nutritional area of 5x5, 6x6, and to obtain an early harvest of 7x7, 8x8 cm. During the pick, it is important to keep the maximum number of lateral roots in the plants, and during this period they are still very short. Although when selecting seedlings before planting them in a permanent place, a significant part of the roots is lost, nevertheless, the dived seedlings, due to the better development of lateral roots at the base of the stem, have an advantage over the unpicked seedlings.
The maximum preservation of the roots of the seedlings during planting, the best survival rate and the continuity of growth after planting are achieved when growing seedlings in nutrient pots. Potless seedlings, especially in the absence of a clod of earth, grow slowly after planting and only after 20-30 days intensive plant growth begins. Pots with unpicked plants are placed in a greenhouse or greenhouse close to the same level. To increase the area of nutrition, plants in 5-6 cm pots can be installed at intervals of 2-3 cm.
It is imperative, after installing the pots on the surface of the garden beds, to fill the voids between them with soil to prevent them from drying out. You can sow seeds of mid-season and late varieties in pots. Potless seedlings are usually dived at distances of 6x6, 5x5, 6x5, 6x4 cm. Early seedlings are dived 8x8 cm. Seedlings of early varieties are grown in a greenhouse, mid-ripening varieties can be grown under small-sized film shelters on solar heating by sowing seeds into the ground.
Before the emergence of seedlings, the temperature in the room is maintained within + 17 … + 20 ° С. With the emergence of seedlings and before the formation of the first true leaf, it is reduced to + 6 … + 8 ° C and immediately gives maximum access to light in order to avoid stretching the plants. In the future, to obtain high-quality seedlings, the temperature is maintained in sunny weather + 15 … + 17 ° С, in cloudy + 12 … + 15 ° С, at night + 6 … + 8 ° С. Regulate the temperature by airing hotbeds or greenhouses. When the appropriate outside temperature is reached, remove the film from the shelters and open the doors.
When growing seedlings, it is important to add soil to it. This increases the resistance of plants, lateral roots appear in the lower part of the stem, which improves the quality of seedlings. Sprinkle fresh loose earth until the cotyledon leaves.
Seedlings are rarely watered, but abundantly. The soil should be moderately moist. Excess moisture at night is especially dangerous. High humidity of soil and air leads to mass disease of plants with "black leg" and downy mildew. The optimum relative humidity in the room should be between 60-70%, which is achieved by strong ventilation. Watering seedlings can only be done in sunny weather.
The need for seedlings in nutrients at the beginning of growth is satisfied by the reserves in the soil, which are subsequently replenished during feeding. 10-12 days after the pick, when the second real leaf appears, the first feeding of the seedlings is carried out: 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10-20 g of potassium chloride are taken for 10 liters of water.
The second feeding is carried out a week after the first (30-40 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride per bucket of water). It is good to feed cabbage seedlings with organic fertilizers (diluted 3-4 times with slurry or 8-10 times with mullein with the addition of phosphorus and potash fertilizers).
The third feeding is done 7-10 days before planting the seedlings (20 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 40-60 g of potassium chloride per bucket).
Such feeding ensures the accumulation of sugars in plants that increase frost resistance, promotes the formation of a branched root system and guarantees better survival. The number of dressings and the amount of a particular nutrient included in the dressing must be clarified based on the condition of the plants, variety and growing conditions. With a lack of light and high soil moisture, the dose of nitrogen fertilizers is reduced.
Timely removal of weeds and loosening of the soil are necessary for normal illumination of plants, access to the soil of air and moisture.
Before planting, the seedlings are gradually accustomed to growing conditions in the open field. 10-12 days before planting, it is hardened, leaving open greenhouses or greenhouses during the day, and in the absence of frost, at night. Watering is stopped during hardening. On the day of planting, seedlings are thoroughly watered 2-3 hours before sampling to make it easier to select and not damage the roots during harvesting. Excessive watering of potted seedlings is avoided, as waterlogged pots fall apart. Take out the seedlings, carefully digging in, with a pot or lump of soil. At the same time, sick and ugly plants are rejected.
When growing seedlings, special attention is paid to their quality. It should be hardened, have dark green leaves with a light waxy bloom and light anthocyanin coloration of petioles and veins, a well-developed root system, stems with a light anthocyanin coloration, height (from root collar to heart) 8-10 cm, 4-6 mm thick, plant height (from the root collar to the tips of the leaves) 20-25 cm. Early potted seedlings should have 6-7, and the remaining varieties should have 4-6 fully expanded leaves without signs of wilting, without signs of keels and black legs with a lump of earth or pots. The seedlings of early varieties should be 45-60 days old, for other varieties - 35-50 days.
Seedlings of early cabbage are planted in the North-West in the first ten days of May. After early cabbage, seedlings of mid-season varieties are planted, which are grown for summer consumption, then late cabbage for storage in winter, and last of all - at the end of May - seedlings of medium cabbage used for pickling. It is convenient to place cabbage rows from north to south. In the North-West, they are grown on ridges or ridges in order to weaken the effect of waterlogging and improve the thermal regime of the soil.
For the convenience of processing row spacing, the distance between the rows is 60-70 cm. The distance between plants in a row depends on the variety. Early cabbage is planted after 25-30 cm, mid-ripening varieties - after 35-40 cm, late ones - after 50-60 cm. Before planting, the site is marked with a marker and the seedlings are laid out. Its good survival rate is ensured under the following conditions: 1) protection of the root system from drying out and leaves from wilting; 2) planting seedlings without delay after watering the holes; 3) sheer immersion of plants in the hole and backfilling of the stem with soil to the first true leaf; 4) tight compaction of roots with moist soil; 5) filling the holes on top with dry soil.
If these rules are observed, replanting of seedlings will not be necessary, since almost 100% of the plants take root. Good growth of potted seedlings after planting occurs with rapid root penetration into the soil.
3-4 days after disembarking the seedlings, it is necessary to plant them in the places of lunges. Loosening of row spacings and weed control take an important place in the system of care measures. The first loosening is carried out to a depth of 4-6 cm. The second and subsequent - to a depth of 10-12 cm after each rain or watering. At the same time, it is important that the protective (untreated near the plants) zone is minimal, and the plants are not covered with earth and the root system is not damaged. During the first loosening, it is 8-10 cm, with subsequent loosening - 10-15 cm. With a lack of moisture, they loosen smaller, with abundant precipitation, deeper. On heavy soils, loosening is done deeper than on light soils. Loosening is aimed at combating weeds and keeping the soil loose in order to create a favorable water and air regime for plant growth. During the summer, 4-6 loosening is carried out.
Cabbage varieties with a short stump during the summer are spud once, with a higher stump twice, and later varieties - even three times. Hilling is done when the soil is moist enough - after rain or watering. You cannot roll dry soil onto the plant. They huddle for the last time before closing the leaves in rows.
Cabbage responds well to feeding. Fertilization, timed to the phases of increased nutrient consumption - the growth of rosette leaves and the beginning of the formation of heads of cabbage - has a positive effect on increasing the yield. The first feeding is done by combining it with the first hilling, 10-15 days after planting the seedlings (5-10 g of ammonium nitrate, 10 g of superphosphate, and 5-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m2). It accelerates leaf growth, promotes higher yields and is especially important for early cabbage. The first top dressing is not recommended if, during planting, fertilizers were added to the holes along with irrigation water. In the second feeding add 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 10-15 g of superphosphate and 5-10 g of potassium chloride per 1 m2.
Late-ripening varieties are fed the third time with the same fertilizers. When carrying out liquid feeding, it is combined with watering. The concentration of fertilizers during the first feeding should not exceed 1%, with subsequent fertilization - no more than 1.5-2%. The first feeding of plants can be done with diluted 1: 3 slurry, 1:10 mullein, or 1: 10-15 bird droppings. Live (or, as it is called, green) manure can be used instead of slurry.
Dry top dressing can be done before rain or watering. You need to beware of fertilizer getting on the leaves, especially on the growing point. Fertilizers should be carefully scattered around the plants, and not at the very root, especially not on the stalk. In cabbage, the suction roots are located at the level of the leaf rosette edge. In our country, in the North-West, the supply of nutrients from cold soil can be difficult. In this case, the use of foliar dressings is effective, especially with microfertilizers: 0.05% boric acid, 0.05% magnesium sulfate, 0.05% ammonium molybdate, 0.05% manganese sulfate, 0.05% copper sulfate or 0.01% zinc sulfate.
The timing and rates of cabbage watering depend on the soil, climatic and weather conditions and the state of the plants. In the absence of precipitation, they are carried out at intervals of 10-12 days. In our conditions, the combination of irrigation with high soil fertility can increase the yield of cabbage by 2-2.5 times and accelerate the harvest. When setting a specific irrigation time, soil moisture is taken into account.
If the soil does not form into a ball that disintegrates when pressed, then watering is required. When growing cabbage for winter storage, keep the soil at a moderate moisture level. Although this will lead to a decrease in yield, it will help to reduce waste during storage.
Cabbage pests and fight against them
Larvae of two types of cabbage flies cause great harm to cabbage: spring and summer. An important preventive measure is deep tillage in the fall. To prevent the laying of eggs, systematic loosening is carried out around the plants, since they lay eggs on the root collar next to the soil.
Cruciferous fleas cause severe damage to young seedlings. Aphids suck out the juice, causing the leaves to discolor and curl. In autumn, at least in early spring, it is necessary to remove stumps from the site. To combat the caterpillars of the cabbage scoop, cabbage whiteworm, cabbage moth, deep autumn digging of soil and harvesting of plant residues from the site are carried out (cabbage moth pupae winter on the stumps). Ash, shag infusion, mustard are used for plant protection. You can plant repellent plants with insecticidal properties next to cabbage: celery, parsley, basil, garlic, hyssop, tansy, sage, delphinium. It is possible to use an infusion of potato tops, leaves and stepchildren of tomato, yarrow, burdock, wormwood, dandelion, milkweed, and garlic to protect plants from pests.
Harvesting is carried out when the heads of cabbage have reached economic fitness. Delays in harvesting can lead to losses due to head cracking and the spread of disease. Early cabbage is harvested selectively as it ripens. The head of cabbage is ready for harvesting when the top sheet is stretched on it and acquired a shine. Mid-season varieties are harvested at the same time, since they ripen for harvesting only in late September - early October. Late cabbage is harvested in early October. Harvesting of these varieties is completed before the onset of constant frosts -3 … -5 ° С. Frozen heads of cabbage will be poorly stored.
Pickle - spring vitamin
As already noted, both fresh and sauerkraut have many beneficial properties. And yet you need to know those cases when the use of cabbage can lead to undesirable consequences.
In some cases, it is better to replace sauerkraut with brine. It lacks the coarse fiber that sometimes causes pain and bloating in the stomach and intestines. Brine is a unique medicinal and restorative agent that acts on the human body similar to sauerkraut, but much softer. It enhances the secretion of bile, stimulates the pancreas, and is recommended as a vitamin drink. Brine, especially in springtime, is a source of vitamin C and an antiscorbutic agent.
Strongly boiled cabbage eliminates fermentation in the intestines, promotes healthy sleep, strengthens vision, helps with chronic cough, intestinal inflammation, burns, spleen and liver diseases. Boiled for a long time (more than 30-40 minutes), it has a fixing effect, boiled for a short time - a laxative.
Direct contraindications for taking fresh cabbage (but not cabbage juice) are increased acidity of gastric juice, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute stage. It is not recommended to use cabbage after surgical operations on the abdominal cavity and chest, in acute, accompanied by diarrhea, gastroenterocolitis, after a heart attack.
Sauerkraut is contraindicated because of the high content of organic acids in it for patients with high acidity of gastric juice, gastric ulcer and intestinal ulcer, liver and pancreas diseases. A high salt content requires careful intake of sauerkraut by patients with hypertension and kidney disease, since salt retains water in the body and provokes hypertensive crises and edema syndrome. In such cases, sauerkraut is prepared with less salt or washed before use.
Read the next part: White cabbage in cooking →
When choosing a place for planting, it should be borne in mind that cabbage of all types does not really like acidic soils. Because on them it is most often affected by the keel (keel is the formation of growths and swellings on the roots), which causes the root system of plants to rot and collapse
Alas, East Asian cabbage is poorly distributed among our gardeners, but in vain: these delicious vegetables are quite unpretentious to grow, cold-resistant and can become a source of the earliest vitamin greens
White cabbage is a cold-resistant plant. She loves light, and her shading causes the stem to stretch. And the high demand for moisture is explained by the presence of large leaves with a large evaporating surface
Caring for the seedlings of turnip consists in the timely implementation of measures to combat pests and diseases, in loosening the soil between rows and in rows, in removing weeds, thinning at a distance of 3-4 cm in places where plants are thickened, in watering as needed and in 1- 2 dressings
Cabbage is moisture-loving. The proverb says: "Without watering and cabbage dries." One plant "drinks" up to 10 liters of water per day. Therefore, it is better to place late varieties closer to the reservoir, and early ripening ones, preferably in a high place