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Early Spring And Sub-winter Sowing Of Carrots
Early Spring And Sub-winter Sowing Of Carrots

Video: Early Spring And Sub-winter Sowing Of Carrots

Video: Early Spring And Sub-winter Sowing Of Carrots
Video: 7 Crops You Can Grow From Seed With Snow on The Ground! 2023, October

Soil preparation

growing carrots
growing carrots

Considering that carrot seeds are very small and their shoots are too weak, the soil under it should be treated especially carefully. The top layer of the bed should be brought to a fine crumbly state.

The soil for carrots is prepared in the fall. After harvesting early crops, deep moldboard loosening is carried out. To grow carrots, deep autumn tillage with the introduction of humus or compost is required, if it was not introduced under the predecessor, therefore, it is imperative to dig it to the full depth of the cultivated horizon.

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You can not start spring tillage until it "ripens". In the spring, the soil is loosened with a rake to a depth of 3-5 cm in order to preserve moisture; when sowing early, slowly drying areas are not harrowed. Then the site is cultivated, and with strong flooding of the soil, it is dug up to 2/3 of the depth. When digging the soil, you should especially carefully remove the rhizomes of perennial weeds: wheatgrass, milkweed and others.

Sow carrots on ridges or ridges with a carefully leveled surface. The use of ridges in the north-west of Russia in conditions of excessive moisture allows for early spring sowing as early as possible. The width of the ridge is 60 or 70 cm, the width of the bed of the ridges is 1 m. When preparing for sowing, they are leveled with a rake so that an even bed is obtained, while simultaneously loosening the soil to the maximum available depth. If the beds (ridges) have a north-south orientation, they warm up better. When preparing the beds in the fall, the harvest can be obtained two weeks earlier.

For winter sowing, tillage and preparation of ridges or ridges are completed in mid-October. The ridges (or ridges) are well leveled with a rake and longitudinal or transverse grooves are made on them in accordance with the selected seeding pattern.

So that the seeds are placed at the same depth and are well provided with moisture, the soil is compacted before spring sowing. Re-compaction of the soil after sowing provides an earlier (2-3 days) emergence of seedlings. The farms use seeders equipped with rollers, which roll the soil before and after the seeding units. This provides an increase in the field germination of seeds by 15-17% and an increase in yield by 30-50% compared to sowing carrots without rolling the soil.

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Fertilizing carrots

growing carrots
growing carrots

On soils poor in organic matter, 3-5 kg of well-decomposed peat-manure compost are added under the carrots for each square meter. In addition, the soil is filled with mineral fertilizers based on: ammonium nitrate 20-25 g, superphosphate - 30 g, potassium chloride - 30-35 g per 1 m².

When using simple fertilizers, 2/3 of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall, the rest in spring, under pre-sowing loosening. Combined preparations can be added: azofosk, ekofosk, nitrophos, Kemir in the amount of 50-60 g per 1 m². Good results are obtained when 10-15% of the total fertilizer rate is applied to the rows when sowing seeds.

Carrots respond well to the introduction of wood ash into the soil before sowing (both spring and autumn), which contains not only potassium, but also other nutrients necessary for plants. In horticultural conditions, it is not difficult to accumulate enough furnace ash for sowing throughout the year. Its application rate is 120-150 g per 1 m². Fertilizers should be applied to all plants, including carrots, in layers. Most - when digging ridges, and a smaller part - when leveling ridges with a rake before sowing. When sowing carrots, be sure to add a small dose of granulated superphosphate (4-5 g per 1 m²) to the rows along with the seeds.

Seed preparation and sowing

The quality of the seeds and their proper preparation are of great importance for a high yield of carrots. Unprepared seeds, when sown in dry, cold soil, can lie in it for up to a month and not germinate. The seeds of annual weeds sprout much faster and begin to drown out cultivated plants. This is why it is extremely important to speed up the emergence of carrots. Seeds must be pure-grade, have high germination capacity and high germination energy. For early production of carrots, only calibrated, selected seeds should be used. Sowing with large seeds not only increases seed germination by 18-20%, but also increases the marketability of root crops by 20-24%.

In the conditions of an individual garden, seeds are usually prepared by soaking in water for 2-3 days (the water is changed daily) and sprouting, wrapping them in a clean cloth. Since the sowing of the seeds is done by hand, it is desirable that all seeds sprout with a length equal to the width of the seed. This provides faster germination (after 8-10 days) and enables early row spacing.

To accelerate germination, the seeds are soaked in a 0.01-0.05% solution of micronutrient fertilizers at a ratio of seeds to a solution of 1: 1, followed by drying the seeds to a state of flowability. Good results are obtained by soaking carrots in 0.001% succinic acid solution. The seeds are gradually moistened with this solution until they swell completely. A significant effect is provided by the pre-sowing treatment of seeds by the bubbling method - by treating them before sowing with oxygen or air in water (you can use an aquarium compressor).

Oxygen or air is passed into vessels loaded with seeds and filled with water in a ratio of 1: 5, from bottom to top, oxygen or air is passed for 18-24 hours, which ensures that the inhibitors of seed germination are washed out and swell quickly. By the way, there is evidence that after drying, the stimulating effect of bubbling lasts for 6-9 months. This method of seed preparation provides a 7% increase in carrot yield.

Winter sowing of carrots

growing carrots
growing carrots

Timely sowing is the key to obtaining high yields of carrots. Carrots are sown before winter or spring. The earliest production is produced by winter sowing. The crop is obtained 2-3 weeks earlier than with spring sowing.

When sowing in winter, the swollen seeds receive natural hardening, and the plants acquire increased resistance to low temperatures. The root system of carrots develops faster, which promotes better utilization of soil moisture and nutrients.

Agrotechnology for growing an early harvest of carrots is simple. The effectiveness of winter seeding depends on the area. It should have a slight slope to the south, light, non-floating, not acidic and not clogged soils (seeds should be sown in established cold weather with beginning frosts).

When sowing in winter, the seeds are sown dry. It is effective to sow with pelleted seeds before winter. For winter sowing, it is recommended to increase the seeding rate by 25% due to the possibility of death of some seeds under unfavorable wintering conditions. However, an excessive increase in the seeding rate of seeds leads to thickening of seedlings, mutual oppression of plants, a slowdown in the growth rate of root crops and, thus, to the loss of that "run" in plant development, for which, in fact, winter sowing is carried out. Seeds are sown before winter in such a way that before winter they not only did not germinate, but did not even swell. The most favorable period for winter sowing is November 5-15. Seeds are evenly sown in prepared grooves and covered with loose earth with a layer of 1.5-2 cm.

Early spring sowing

growing carrots
growing carrots

When sowing in spring, it is very important to keep moisture in the soil. Sowing should be carried out as early as possible - immediately after pre-sowing soil cultivation, avoiding drying out of its top layer. With a delay in sowing, even one day after tillage, the yield of carrots decreases by 300-600 g from 1 m.

The advantage of sowing seeds in late April - early May is that the seeds are provided with sufficient moisture for germination. Late sowing results in a shortage of crops. The thing is that the soil dries up, and ensuring uniform moisture during the entire period of seed germination is fraught with certain difficulties. Otherwise, the seeds may not germinate or the seedlings will be severely thinned out. If the ridges have been dug up and prepared in the fall, then sowing can be started as soon as the ground thaws by 4-5 cm. The ridges are loosened with a rake. The grooves are made 3 cm deep, and the seeds are covered by 1.5-2 cm.

Thus, for an individual garden, there can be three different sowing periods for carrots: to obtain the earliest harvest, it is advisable to sow part of the carrot in the fall, the second part in early spring in the beds prepared in the fall, and, finally, the third part - in the beds dug up in spring. In the spring, when making ridges, you do not need to immediately try to dig up the whole garden, otherwise you can dry out the earth. In one step, you should dig up and make ridges on such an area that you can sow on the same day.

Carrots are sown on a flat surface with 45 cm row spacing, on ridges according to a 50 + 20 cm pattern or on ridges of three, four, less often five-line ribbons, orienting the rows on them from north to south. Many gardeners prefer transverse sowing, as they find it more convenient for loosening and thinning when handled. It is said that from any of the furrows (paths between the ridges), you can easily reach the middle of the ridge with your hand, and the other half of the ridge is processed from the other side. What to do: Habit is second nature. It has been proven by many years of practice that, while ensuring the optimal plant density of carrots, sowing schemes practically do not affect its yield. It is important that it is convenient to care for the plants while growing.

Some gardeners have adapted to sowing carrots randomly in the beds. However, this seeding method has several disadvantages. Firstly, in this case the seeds are distributed unevenly both over the sown area and depth. Seeds sprout unevenly, their germination stretches for a long time and, most importantly, the care of such crops is very difficult.

Secondly, with scattered sowing, it is impossible to loosen the soil between the plants, weeding and thinning are difficult. Be that as it may, it is necessary to practice the row planting of carrots. The opinion that some gardeners have that there is a lot of space in the garden bed empty when sowing is erroneous. While the plants are small, it always seems that the carrots are rarely sown, but when it grows up and the leaves close in the rows, everything becomes visible.

When sowing, about 0.5-1% of seeds of rapidly emerging indicator plants, such as lettuce, early-ripening radish varieties, are mixed with carrot seeds as a lighthouse crop, since they indicate the direction of the rows of the main crop. Radish is not sown before winter. When sowing in spring, it is recommended to wet the radish seeds for a day so that they swell. This speeds up their emergence. Lettuce and radish germinate earlier than carrots and denote sowing rows, this makes it possible to start loosening the row spacings earlier, without waiting for the emergence of the main crop.

Consequently, overseeding of indicator plants has a double benefit: it allows you to start loosening the row spacings early and gives additional early production of lettuce or radish from the same area. Just do not linger with the harvesting of these plants, as over time they will oppress the carrot plants.

The seeding rate of seeds is recommended so that without thinning, the optimal number of plants per unit area is obtained, taking into account soil fertility, economic suitability, seed weight and field germination. There should be 80-100 plants per 1 m². The seeding rate of carrot seeds is 0.4-0.5 g per 1 m². Sowing with a rate of 0.3-0.4 g of first class seeds per 1 m² allows you to get rid of thinning. True, you need to be confident in the quality of the seeds. With a reduced germination rate, the seeding rate is increased accordingly.

The seeding depth of carrot seeds on light soils is 2-3 cm, on denser soils 1.5-2 cm. For slowly germinating carrot seeds, pre-sowing and post-sowing soil compaction is effective. In this case, the flow of moisture to the seeds is improved. When sowing in winter, the seeds are planted at a shallower depth. In this case, it is reduced taking into account the subsequent mulching of the rows with a layer of peat or humus. If during the spring period the soil is dry at the time of sowing, the prepared sowing furrows should be thoroughly watered before the carrot seeds are in them. After sowing, the seeds are first covered with moist soil, and then dry on top, so that excess moisture does not evaporate.

In a small garden, for the purpose of intensive use of the area, you can sow lettuce, radish, Chinese cabbage in the grooves in the middle of the rows as compactors. To do this, make grooves for sowing at a distance of 10 cm from one another, and alternate (through the groove) sowing carrots and seals. In the initial stages, carrots grow slowly, but these plants grow quickly, in 25-40 days they will be ready for harvest. After cleaning them, the aisles are loosened with hand tines to a depth of 3-4 cm.

The value of carrots

The widespread cultivation of carrots in all countries of the world is due to the high nutritional value of its root crops. They contain up to 86-88% water and 12-14% dry substances, including: 4.5-7.3% sugars in the form of glucose, sucrose, fructose; 1.2% fiber; 0.2% starch; 1.0-1.1% proteins; 0.7% essential and fatty oils; 0.6-1.5% pectins; 0.25% organic acids, mainly malic acid, and phytoncides. Carrot seeds contain up to 13.2% fatty oil and up to 1.5% essential oil, which gives root vegetables, leaves and seeds a specific carrot smell. Immediately after harvesting, the active substances are evenly distributed in all parts of the root crop.

By the content of phytoncides, substances that have a detrimental effect on the microflora, carrots are almost as good as onions and garlic. Carrots serve today as a means of improving the intestines and maintaining its normal microflora, as it has antimicrobial properties. It should be noted that the phytoncidal effect of carrots depends on the age of the plants; the greatest effect was observed in unripe root crops. During storage, the antimicrobial activity of carrots gradually decreases. The components that in total determine the phytoncidal effect of carrots are: benzoic and hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic and other acids.

For carrots, a distinctive feature is a very large, especially in varieties with a red color of the root, the amount of provitamin A (R-carotene) and other carotenoids (up to 36 mg per 100 g), which determine its specific color.

Together with carrots, a person receives a large amount of potassium salts. Namely, with potassium, doctors associate that laxative, choleretic and diuretic effect that occurs after eating this root vegetable. That is why doctors consider carrots to be very useful for heart disease, hypertension, diseases of the biliary system and kidneys.