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How To Choose Varieties Of Red And White Currants And Grow A High Yield Of Berries
How To Choose Varieties Of Red And White Currants And Grow A High Yield Of Berries

Video: How To Choose Varieties Of Red And White Currants And Grow A High Yield Of Berries

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Video: How to harvest red currants - grow red currants! | allotment growing | shokher bagan 2023, February

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varieties of red and white currants
varieties of red and white currants

Red currants are still very popular with gardeners, although there are usually fewer bushes on their backyards than black currant bushes.

Useful properties of currants

Sometimes this crop was grown as a medicinal plant. The value of its berries lies in the high content of coumarins in them, i.e. substances that reduce blood clotting. There are a lot of pectins in red currants, so it is important for areas with unfavorable ecology, since these polysaccharides favor the removal of heavy metal salts from the body. The high iron content in raw berries prevents and treats anemia. There are many varieties of red currants in which berries remain on the branches for a long time, sometimes until late autumn, without losing their chemical composition.

The leaves and fruits of this culture do not have a specific currant smell characteristic of black currant, and many cannot stand it, and for some people it may be an allergen. Jams, jellies, syrups and soft drinks that quench thirst are made from the fruits of red currants. For example, I process most of my rather large harvest of red currant berries into wine. It is true that earlier he produced about 120 liters of dry berry wine, and in the last 7-8 years has reduced its volume to 50-70 liters. Now I make 4-7 liters of concentrated jelly from the remaining berries.

Under natural conditions, about 20 species of red and white currants are known, which grow in the north of Western Europe, in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, Northern Mongolia and in Northeast China. They served as the basis for the development of cultural forms. Typically, white currant varieties are included among red currant varieties.

Most varieties of red currants (about 4/5 of their number) are self-fertile (self-pollinated), but this quality varies within different limits (from 32 to 65% of fruit set). However, it should be noted that the overwhelming majority of red currant varieties still need pollinating varieties and, to some extent, pollinating insects. Therefore, it is very important to take a serious approach to the choice of varieties when planting this crop on your site, because with cross-pollination, the yield of berries of the corresponding varieties increases significantly. Therefore, 4-5 red currant bushes are often kept in the garden in order to significantly increase the percentage of fruit set.

Red currant varieties

The first sweet and sour berries that run together in the brush (i.e., uneven in size - from large to small) can be enjoyed thanks to the Early Sweet variety (VSTISP). It is characterized by early and amicable fruit ripening.

The time-tested Pervenets (early maturing) variet

from Germany has several names (including

Erstling aus Vierlanden), it is characterized by good winter hardiness, resistance to mycoses and a fairly high yield (6-7 kg per bush). Its berries are medium in size (0.7 g), very tasty (I have tried them). They are arranged in a long, dense brush on a long, brittle petiole, which greatly facilitates harvesting. There is an opinion of some experts that this variety is universal as a pollinator for many varieties of red currant. I have no personal observations of this variety, since the only bush did not winter after an unsuccessful late autumn planting.

New early variety

Serpentin(VSTISP) can attract the attention of gardeners with its high (6.4 kg per bush) yield of large (0.8-1.1 g) sweet-sour berries located on long clusters, which facilitates fruit picking. The crop can be so severe that the branches bend almost to the ground under its weight. This variety is resistant to diseases and pests.

Winter-hardy variety

Natali (VSIISP) of medium ripening forms large dense red berries (0.7-1 g) dry separation. With age, under the weight of a large harvest (4-5 kg ​​per bush), the branches sag, which is why the bush acquires a more spreading shape, so it must be periodically rejuvenated.

In a fast-growing, highly winter-hardy, medium-early ripening period of the Dutch variety

Jonker van Tets (

Jonker van Tets) berries are bright red, large (0.7 g), dense-skinned, very pleasant taste. They are placed in 12-15 pieces on long brushes. Suitable both for fresh consumption and for processing; berries are well transported. The variety is fruitful (up to 6-7 kg per bush), therefore, with an abundance of berries, the branches bend strongly. It is resistant to powdery mildew, slightly affected by anthracnose, suitable for growing in a trellis culture. Experts call this variety a reference and often use it when comparing with others. The variety is also notable for the fact that its berries are almost not touched by birds, since they are well sheltered from feathered pests by the foliage of the bush. Its disadvantages include a relatively low self-fertility, average susceptibility to kidney mites, rather early flowering, which may cause the ovaries to fall off after spring frosts.

The bush of red currant, a fast-growing medium-ripening variety, Krasnaya Andreichenko, is characterized by tall growt

(up to 1.5 m) and a fairly high yield. Its berries (0.7 g) have a good sweet and sour taste (4.2 points). The disadvantage of the variety is considered to be low resistance to anthracnose spotting.

Varshevich currant
Varshevich currant

The new winter-hardy mid -season cultivar

Uralskaya krasavitsa (South Uralskiy NIIPiK) is famous for its very large (0.8-1.7 g) one-dimensional berries of sweet, dessert taste (5 points). The high yield (3.5-15.5 kg / bush) is largely due to its self-fertility (61.1%) and very conscientious plant care. The variety is resistant to powdery mildew, slightly damaged by moth and sawflies.

Winter hardy late variety

Dutch red - fruiting period - up to 30 years, extremely unpretentious to growing conditions, but I get large berries from a bush only with good care.

A perennial wide-spreading bush of the old Polish late-ripening variety

Varshevich gives me a yield of up to 20-25 kg annually, although it is located in a very shaded place in the garden. It is distinguished by an extremely original dark cherry color of berries, somewhat sour, but they hang on the bush for a particularly long time. Usually I use the harvest from it for wine and jelly. For 15-17 years, it was not possible to observe pests and diseases on this variety. The disadvantages of this variety include a slightly sour taste, as well as the fact that it is more difficult to cut with summer cuttings compared to other varieties.

The weakness of the red currant variety

Sugar with very long (up to 9 cm) brushes and a yield of up to 4 kg is a very low self-fertility (up to 35%), but for its pollination, for example, the Natalie variety I have is quite suitable. However, the delicious, fragrant Sugar berries are just perfect for eating straight from the bush. But precisely because of the sweetness of the fruit, its bush requires mandatory protection from birds, especially when it is in an open place.

As very late ripening varieties, the varieties recently bred by VNIISPK may be interesting -

Marmeladnitsa (orange-red berries) and

Valentinovka… The first of the named varieties forms flat-round fruits with well-visible white veins with a dry separation. They have a weight of 0.6-0.8 g, a sour taste, but they are characterized by a high content of pectin substances and excellent gelling properties. Both varieties are highly resistant to powdery mildew.

White currant varieties

There are significantly fewer varieties of white currants than red ones. Variety

Versailles white, medium ripening, has been growing in garden plots for six decades. Its large (more than 1 cm in diameter, weighing 0.7-0.8 g) yellowish berries have a sweet and sour taste. The disadvantages of the variety include a sprawling bush, fragility of shoots and instability to anthracnose.

Western European medium- hardy variety

Yuterborgskaya, medium ripening, high-yielding (up to 7-8 kg per bush), forms rather large (more than 1 cm in diameter, weighing 0.6 g) berries of a light cream color (almost colorless), which are characterized by a high content of pectin and P- active substances, do not crumble for a long time and do not lose taste. The variety is moderately self-fertile, moderately resistant to anthracnose and septoria, suffers from damage by currant bud moth, gooseberry sawfly and red-gall aphid. Due to its spreading shape, the bush requires mandatory props.

Currant pests

Pests on red and white currants are not particularly observed. Note here that the reason for the small amount of reddened apical leaves of red currants caused by red gall aphids in spring, perhaps, should not be paid undue attention to in order to avoid unnecessary treatments with chemical and biological preparations. Then the aphid flies to a marsh plant - sedge.

However, if sawfly caterpillars are found on the bushes of red, as well as white currants and gooseberries, extreme measures must be taken urgently, since at a very high density they can destroy all the foliage of the plant in a matter of days. Once I had to observe such a picture on my two bushes, when I did not have time to suppress the pests with even a saturated infusion of tobacco or makhorka leaves. It was with this means that the rest of the bushes and gooseberries were later saved from this scourge.

Planting red and white currants and caring for plants

This culture is very resilient. As a rule, it bears fruit successfully up to 18-25 years and more. The location for her bush is chosen only in a well-lit area. If there is a shortage of sufficient amount of sunlight, it may be damaged by diseases and damage by pests, as well as weakening the growth of branches. As a result, this will lead to a mandatory decrease in the yield and quality of berries. It must be remembered that this culture does not like high groundwater levels. They should be located no closer than 1.5-2 m from the soil surface. Sandy, heavy clayey and waterlogged soils are unsuitable for planting and growing.

For planting, they dig a hole 50x50 cm in size, while the upper fertile soil layer is carefully laid aside, so that it can then be used to powder the bush. Fertile soil is mixed with compost and mineral fertilizers. Remember: as you prepare this soil, your plant will develop and bear fruit. The distance between the bushes depends, first of all, on the biological characteristics of the variety - on its spreading or erect form.

Between plants with a compact upright form (for example, in the varieties Gollandskaya krasnaya, Rannyaya sladkaya, Yuterbogskaya), it should be 1-1.2 m, and in varieties with spreading branches (Jonker van Tetz, Natali) - 1.4-1.5 m. You can deepen the root collar of the plant by 5-6 cm. Sometimes after planting, the branches of the plants are immediately cut off so that only 3-4 buds remain above the soil from each branch (this is done to stimulate the awakening of dormant buds in the root part of the bush). Of the branches of the zero order that appeared by the fall, 2-3 of the most powerful are left, and the rest are cut out at the very base. Next season, you can add 2-3 more branches from the newly appeared ones. For another 2-3 years, the bush is replenished with two or three new zero branches annually. After that, the formation of the bush can be completed.

In the future, the conditions for caring for this currant are reduced to pruning, which helps to improve the light regime of the plant. First of all, weak, broken and drying branches are removed. But when pruning, it is impossible to cut off the ends of fruiting branches, where a significant part of the brushes with berries is usually formed. It is worth shortening the branches of the red currant, and you can lose a significant part of the berry harvest.

varieties of red and white currants
varieties of red and white currants

If you got a garden with neglected red currant bushes, then you need to carry out their serious pruning, rejuvenation. First of all, branches are cut out that have stopped growing in length. Also remove those branches that create thickening. The cut material must be removed from the site or burned, as it can be a source of spread of pathogens and pests.

It must be borne in mind that the main part of the root system of red currants is located in the upper layers of the soil, actively growing on the sides. This should be considered when cultivating the soil under bushes. It is important not to injure the root system. The proximity of the roots must be taken into account both when watering and making additional fertilizing. You can mulch the soil under the projection of the crown of the bush to avoid excessive evaporation of moisture.

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in spring - at the beginning of growth and after flowering; phosphorus and potassium - in the fall, when digging the soil. In this case, the use of chlorine-containing fertilizers should be avoided. The use of wood ash as potash fertilizers contributes to high yields. The best option is when a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers is applied under the bushes.

Pick berries from red currants at full maturity. It is preferable to do this in one step in dry weather or in the morning (after dew has melted). You need to know that unripe berries have a thick skin, less sugar, give less juice.

Alexander Lazarev, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection

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