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The Basics Of Feeding
The Basics Of Feeding

Video: The Basics Of Feeding

Video: The Basics Of Feeding
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How to increase the fertility of the garden with the help of fertilizing (part 3)

Read the previous part of the article: Types of feeding

Manure
Manure

For all the undoubted benefits of feeding, they can also bring harm if certain rules are not followed. So, with root dressing, the fertilizing solution is poured directly under the root or (which is preferable) over the entire area of the root system. In this case, the solution should in no case fall on the leaves and the root collar. The latter is especially dangerous when feeding melons and gourds.

Also, when carrying out liquid root dressings, it should be remembered that top dressing with liquid fertilizers on dry soil leads to root burns, so you first need to moisten the soil with water, and only then feed it.

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Taking into account temperature and precipitation

If the temperature outside the window does not exceed 10 ° C, then only dry dressings can be carried out, liquid dressings at such a low temperature are completely useless.

In cold and rainy summers, the priorities of plants change somewhat - the need for potash fertilizers increases, so the dose of potassium during such periods should be increased when feeding.

In addition, during rainy weather on sandy soils, a strong leaching of fertilizers occurs - in fact, a considerable part of the applied fertilizers (mostly nitrogen and potash) simply disappears, leaving the lower soil layers, and as a result are not used by plants. Therefore, in such weather, it is not worthwhile to apply large doses of mineral fertilizers at one time - it is better to feed them little by little, but repeatedly.

Taking into account the condition of the plants

When carrying out dressings, it is imperative to take into account the condition of the plants, and when making appropriate decisions, be guided by the appearance of green pets. You should not feed obviously sick plants - it is better to wait with feeding and treat them with growth and root formation stimulants and (or, that is, according to the situation) with drugs for diseases. And only after you are sure that the plants are "come to life", you can apply a weak feeding to them.

If you notice a shortage of some nutrient (say, potassium), then it is most effective to carry out a complex feeding with a more concentrated solution under the root and a weak solution over the leaves. Well, if you determine what the plant specifically lacks, you fail, but you understand that it is still a matter of nutrition, then it is worth remembering the macro- and microelements. After all, it is quite simple to determine the lack of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

In this case, the most reasonable thing is to carry out foliar feeding with any liquid preparation with a complex of trace elements and huminates, and the plants will "come to life". Better, of course, not once, but at least 2-3 times with an interval of a week. By the way, if the assumption about the lack of some macro- or microelements is true - you will understand this already in a couple of days after the first foliar feeding according to the improved appearance of the pets, then do not be lazy and feed the plants with the same solution, only in greater concentration, under the root, and plants you will be thanked.

And yet, in my opinion, in most cases, when feeding, it is worth giving preference to complex fertilizers, and monofertilizers (separately phosphorus, potassium or nitrogen) should be applied only when the plants clearly lack the appropriate nutrients. Or at certain physiological periods of their development, when there is a great need for such mono-fertilizers (for example, spring feeding with urea).

To avoid nitrate build-up

However, everything is fine in moderation - no fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers, should be abused, since excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to the accumulation of nitrates; also the keeping quality of vegetables decreases and their susceptibility to diseases increases.

In general, a certain amount of caution should be exercised with regard to the application of nitrogen fertilizers. First, relatively large doses of nitrogen fertilizers are applied only in spring, then only as needed and in small doses.

Secondly, you should not feed green crops (lettuce, watercress, spinach, cabbage, rhubarb, dill, parsley, etc.) with mullein, bird droppings or slurry, since these plants accumulate nitrates to the greatest extent. If you see that you absolutely cannot do without such feeding, then two weeks after feeding do not harvest.

Also, to reduce the overall potential of nitrate accumulation by plants, it is necessary to ensure regular watering, avoid thickened plantings (with a lack of light, the amount of accumulated nitrates increases) and, if possible, use complex fertilizers with molybdenum (the introduction of molybdenum reduces the likelihood of nitrate accumulation).

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About mixing fertilizers

Since fertilizers are chemicals that can react with each other, be very careful when using multiple fertilizers in the same nutrient solution. And clearly know which fertilizers can be mixed with each other, and which - in no case.

You cannot mix:

  • ammonium nitrate - with urea, with simple superphosphate, with lime, dolomite, chalk, manure;
  • ammonium sulfate - with lime, dolomite, chalk, manure;
  • urea - with ammonium nitrate, simple superphosphate, lime, dolomite, chalk;
  • simple superphosphate - with ammonium nitrate, urea, lime, dolomite, chalk;
  • granular superphosphate, double and neutralized - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
  • potassium chloride, potassium salt - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
  • potassium sulfate - with lime, dolomite, chalk;
  • lime, dolomite, ground chalk - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea, simple superphosphate, granular superphosphate, double, manure;
  • manure, bird droppings - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, lime, dolomite, ground chalk.

You can mix, but only immediately before adding:

  • ammonium nitrate - with ammonium sulfate, granular superphosphate, double and neutralized, potassium chloride, potassium salt and potassium sulfate, ammophos;
  • ammonium sulfate - with ammonium nitrate and urea, with potassium chloride and potassium salt;
  • urea - with ammonium sulfate, granular superphosphate, double and neutralized, potassium chloride, potassium salt and potassium sulfate, ammophos;
  • simple superphosphate - with potassium chloride and potassium salt;
  • granular superphosphate, double and neutralized - with ammonium nitrate and urea, potassium chloride and potassium salt;
  • potassium chloride, potassium salt - with ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and urea, simple, granular, double and neutralized superphosphate, ammophos;
  • potassium sulfate - with ammonium nitrate and urea.

How to determine the dose of fertilizers without scales

If you need to apply fertilizer, and the scales are not at hand, a matchbox, glass, tablespoon and teaspoon can help you out.

The table is based on materials from the book "Amateur Garden" (authors V. I. Ivanov, P. M. Shepel)

Fertilizers Capacity, g
In a glass

(no slide)

In a matchbox

(no slide)

In a tablespoon

(no slide)

In a teaspoon

(no slide)

Ammonium nitrate 180 20 fifteen five
Urea 150 16 12 4
Ammonium sulfate 160 17 13 4
Simple superphosphate 230 23 17 6
Granular superphosphate 240 23 17 6
Superphosphate double 190 20 fifteen five
Potassium chloride 200 20 fifteen five
Potassium salt 240 24 18 6
Potassium sulfate 270 28 21 7
Potassium nitrate 220 23 17 6
Fertilizing mixtures (garden, fruit and berry, etc.) 230 24 18 6
Complete fertilization 210 21 16 five
Nitrophoska 230 24 18 6
Fluff lime 130 12 - -
Copper sulfate 220 22 16 five
Iron vitriol 200 22 16 five

The capacity of one faceted glass is 13 tablespoons, one tablespoon - 3 teaspoons, one teaspoon holds 5 g of water.

It is worth noting that the given data are approximate - in other sources the information on grams is slightly different, which is not surprising, since even the presence of a slide that is almost invisible to the eye on the same spoon will significantly change the weight of the fertilizer. Therefore, if it is necessary to carry out ultra-precise calculations (which may be required for drip irrigation with fertilizer solutions), one cannot do without scales. In all other cases, these data may well be guided by.

Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg

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