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Video: Viola: Agricultural And Landscape Use
Read the previous part: Growing viola: varieties, reproduction, preparation of seedlings
Viola seedlings start picking as soon as the first pair of true leaves is formed, about a month and a half after sowing. The seedlings dive into small containers with a diameter of 8-10 cm, they are planted one at a time, the substrate is moistened, and in this state they are grown.
Seedlings planted in pots are usually kept at a temperature of + 10 … + 15 ° C, watered as the substrate dries up and illuminated for an hour in the morning and evening. In order for the seedlings to develop well, and the root system to recover faster after the pick, it is necessary to carry out a series of dressings again, using complex mineral fertilizers for this. The main thing is that fertilizers do not contain urea and ammonia.
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Usually it takes 2.5-3 months from sowing seeds to obtaining full-fledged plants ready for planting in a permanent place, and if you want to get flowering plants that can be used to immediately decorate a flower bed, then in this case you will have to hold the seedlings in containers for two weeks longer.
But the violet is good not only because it can bloom in the spring-summer-autumn periods, it can also be achieved from it that it blooms in winter, when there is frost outside the window and a blizzard howls. Establishing such a process is a whole science, and it is called distillation. Forcing is also applicable for our viola, for this plant it is necessary to plant it in any container and carry out a number of simple measures.
It all starts, naturally, with sowing seeds, which are sown in boxes or containers in ordinary soil and placed in a cold greenhouse. This must be done in late June - early July. By the end of July or by the beginning of August, the seeds germinate and shoots appear.
As soon as they get stronger and form a couple of real leaves, it will be necessary to plant them in about 2-3 pieces in pots, the diameter of which is at least 10 cm.After planting, the pots with plants must be dug into the garden, slightly shaded and watered periodically, avoiding the drying of the earthen coma. It is possible to avoid sowing seeds in pots, they are allowed to plant plants growing on the site.
In mid-September or early October, containers with the most well-developed plants are transferred to a heated room or to a heated greenhouse, where the temperature is maintained at + 5 … + 6 ° C. As soon as the first flower stalks appear on the plants, it is necessary to increase the room temperature to + 12 ° C - it will contribute to a more lush and longer flowering of violets. It will be possible to admire them already in December.
And now I will tell you more about the correct cultivation of viola and, in conclusion, how you can use the violet.
Let's start with agricultural technology, it is not difficult, because viols are unpretentious and very undemanding plants, they tolerate transplantation well, they begin to grow especially vividly in a new place, if the clod of earth is not destroyed during transplantation.
One of the main conditions for obtaining full-fledged plants is the right choice of a place for planting. All violets simply adore well-lit, with only a little shade in the midday hours, places with loose, moderately moist and fertile soil. It is better not to plant plants in a dense shade, there they can bloom for a longer time, however, the flowering itself will not be as bright and lush as in a lit place.
For planting viola, it is advisable to prepare the soil in advance, you need to dig it up, add compost or humus, and then plant the plants, following the planting scheme. The optimal arrangement of plants on the site is 20-30 cm from each other. Immediately after planting, the soil must be watered, and then mulched with peat or humus with a layer of about 4-6 cm. This will save irrigation moisture, quickly take root for the plants in a new place and serve as additional nutrition for the roots.
Further care of the plants is no different; periodic loosening of the soil should be carried out, weeds should be removed, and the plants should be watered. Particularly much attention must be paid to water regulation, violets are afraid of both stagnant moisture and drought, so the soil must be periodically moistened, but this must be done in moderation. Viola responds well to the periodic application of mineral fertilizers in the form of solutions. It will take about 35-40 g per bucket of water.
To maximize the decorative effect of viola flowering, it is necessary to promptly remove all faded inflorescences. By the way, this will also completely exclude or minimize self-seeding.
In the autumn period, when cold weather sets in, but when the snow has not yet fallen, all previously planted plants should be mulched with peat, and then covered with spruce branches, it will protect the plants from the cold and serve as a good snow accumulator.
The use of violets in the garden landscape
As for the use of violets, their purpose is the broadest - they act as exquisite border plants, occupy an important place in the flower bed, and, due to the presence of a huge number of forms with different growth rates and different colors, they also serve as monocultural or mixed flower beds.
Decorating flower growers use viols to form chic floral and decorative compositions, which include bright spring flower beds, chic borders, magnificent ridges, as well as bright spots of rock gardens and rockeries.
Recently, the use of violets as container plants has become fashionable. For this, wide and low flowerpots are suitable, which can be placed both in open areas and along paths, on stairs, on window sills, balconies and loggias.
Viola will not be superfluous in joint plantings, it is ideally combined with any plants that are low and suitable for the range of colors, be it forget-me-nots, arabis, primroses, muscari or scilla.
As I already mentioned, violets can also be used for cutting, beautiful flowers can stand for a whole week if the water in the vase is changed daily.
Junior Researcher, Berry Crops Department, VNIIS im. I.V. Michurin.
Photo by Natalia Myshina and Natalia Butyagina
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