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Cultivation And Use Of Eleutherococcus Spiny
Cultivation And Use Of Eleutherococcus Spiny

Video: Cultivation And Use Of Eleutherococcus Spiny

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Video: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian Ginseng) 2023, January

Eleutherococcus spiny (Eleutherococcus senticosus)

Eleutherococcus spiny
Eleutherococcus spiny

Due to their biologically active compounds and their effect on the human body, the plants of Eleutherococcus prickly and lure are often called younger brothers of the widely known ginseng.

Because of the thorns (thick on the trunk and thin, but very prickly on the leaves), Eleutherococcus prickly also has popular nicknames - "devil tree" and "devil bush". His homeland is our Far East (Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin Regions), as well as North-East China, North Korea and Japan. Experts consider it a close relative of ginseng; Eleutherococcus often even grows with it in the neighborhood.

The plant chooses valleys, mountain slopes, coniferous and mixed forests for its residence, forming large, impenetrable thickets. It is a low-branched shrub 1.5-2.5 m high. It has cylindrical, rigid rhizomes (up to 1.5 cm thick), located horizontally in the upper soil layer (shallow from the surface); the bark of the rhizome is pinkish-white (the smell of rhizomes is strong, pleasant, the taste is hot and spicy).

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Young shoots are abundantly planted with numerous thin, long brittle light brown, obliquely directed downward thorns; in adult specimens, there are ten or more erect stems. Light green, shiny leaves are arranged on long petioles; flowers - small odorous, separate and bisexual, collected in spherical umbrellas. Eleutherococcus blooms in July - in the first half of August, inedible, black fruits ripen in September (they crumble very quickly after ripening).

The fruit is a spherical or oblong drupe. Eleutherococcus is a moisture-loving and light-loving plant, prefers open places (at the same time, it is shade-resistant, for example, on my site it quite successfully grows in the penumbra of a low cherry) and loose fertile soils of a neutral reaction. It is frost-hardy (withstands up to - 30? C and above).

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Cultivation of eleutherococcus spiny

Landing. When planting in a permanent place, weeds are selected from well-dug (to a depth of 25-30 cm) soil, compost or well-rotted manure (up to 2 buckets per 1 m2) is placed in the planting pit. In the future, if necessary, water the plants, after which it is advisable to feed them with a weak solution of manure (up to 10 liters per 1 m2). With the onset of constant frosts, plantings are mulched with peat chips (with a layer 2-3 cm thick). During the growing season, it is necessary to superficially loosen the soil 3-4 times, while removing all weeds. There should be at least two specimens of Eleutherococcus on the garden plot, since some individuals can only bear unisexual flowers.

Eleutherococcus spiny is propagated by seeds and vegetatively (by shoots, rhizomes and offspring). However, it is difficult to propagate it even with freshly harvested seeds, since they are characterized by very slow germination. When planted in the fall in open ground, the seeds undergo natural stratification. Seedlings appear not earlier than the second spring, and sometimes even in the third year. It is better to transfer seedlings obtained from seeds to a permanent place at the age of two or three; they bloom in the 4-5th year of life.

Reproduction of Eleutherococcus vegetatively is a more effective way than seeds. It is preferable to hold it in April or autumn. To prepare the site, the soil is dug up, carefully breaking up clods, removing weeds and leveling its surface. For this, it is better to use rhizomes 12-15 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm thick. You can take rhizome shoots and green cuttings (at the end of June - first half of July). The distance between plants should be at least 1 m. The flowering of a plant obtained by vegetative means usually occurs in the third year of life.

In the middle lane of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, pests - insects and lemongrass diseases - have not yet been noted, but in some years in winter, mice can cause significant damage to it.

The medicinal properties of Eleutherococcus spiny

Scientists have long paid attention to this very beautiful shrub, but at first they did not consider it from a chemical and pharmacological point of view. For medicinal purposes, the rhizomes and roots of Eleutherococcus prickly begin to harvest from 4-5 years of age, in late autumn or early spring after warming up the soil. To do this, the above-ground mass of the plant is cut down, the roots are carefully dug in and turned out of the soil.

The rhizome is shaken off the remains of the soil, dried in the open air, and dead and damaged parts are removed. Raw materials are dried in a warm, well-ventilated room. To speed up the drying process, large roots can be pre-cut into pieces. Dried roots 8-10 cm in size are placed in linen bags and stored in a dry place. The leaves of the plant have basically the same effect on the body as the root system.

Rhizomes contain many biologically active compounds - glycosides (eleutherosides), coumarins, sterols and lignans, as well as essential oils, resins, gums, starch, lipids, pectin substances, etc. An important quality of Eleutherococcus prickly is its tonic, stimulating and adaptive effect.

While ginseng is rare in nature, it is an expensive and difficult to cultivate plant, then Eleutherococcus is characterized by relatively good adaptability and renewability when grown. In this regard, experts believe that Eleutherococcus may be one of the most promising ginseng substitutes.

In medicine, a liquid extract from the roots of Eleutherococcus prickly is used (in a 1: 1 ratio in 40% alcohol). The drug is stored in a cool, dark place. At home, for the manufacture of alcoholic tincture, 150-200 g of dried crushed roots of Eleutherococcus prickly are infused for 15 days in 1 liter of 40% alcohol, shaking the contents of the container daily. The use of even home tincture is desirable after consultation with the doctor.

The extract, as well as a tincture from the underground mass of the plant, have a beneficial effect in the treatment of atherosclerosis, radiation injuries, reduce high blood sugar levels, mitigate stress, and have an anti-cancer effect. And healthy people can use these drugs when overworked or, if necessary, to perform work in unfavorable conditions for the body.

However, large and excessive doses of the extract can cause insomnia, irritability and sensitivity. The extract is contraindicated in hypertension, high temperature, during the acute period of infectious diseases. The essential oil extracted from rhizomes is used in perfumery, as well as in the confectionery industry for the production of sweets and soft drinks.

Read part 2. Growing and healing properties of high zamanihi →

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