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Strawberry Varieties In North-West Russia
Strawberry Varieties In North-West Russia
Video: Strawberry Varieties In North-West Russia
Video: LINOSA - repairing grade. Strawberries in RUSSIA. Fruits to frost. 2023, February
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Favorite berry of Russians. Part 1

Variety Gourmet
Variety Gourmet

Variety Gourmet

Garden strawberries, which are completely wrongly called strawberries, not only in everyday life, but, unfortunately, in the media, are the most popular among all berry crops. She attracts gardeners with her amazing qualities, which in a rare combination are collected only in her - she is outwardly attractive, fragrant, healing, fruitful and the fastest growing.

The popularity of this berry culture is due to the excellent taste of berries, their dietary properties, a harmonious combination of sugars, acids and vitamins, tender pulp, easy digestibility of various nutrients contained in it. In addition, in comparison with other berry crops, strawberries are distinguished by their high ability for rapid vegetative reproduction, as well as high adaptability and plasticity, which is why they are cultivated in various soil and climatic zones.

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Thanks to the success of breeding work both in our country and abroad, the assortment of garden strawberries is now very diverse. It is well known that in different soil and climatic conditions, the same varieties, as a rule, have different indicators, therefore, their correct selection in each specific region is very important.

Variety Original
Variety Original

Variety Original

It is also known that the zoned assortment is periodically updated in each horticultural zone, since the requirements for varieties are increasing due to the improvement of technologies for their cultivation and consumer demand for the taste and marketability of this valuable berry crop. Therefore, the problem of improving varieties is constantly relevant in all zones of strawberry cultivation, including in the North-West of the Russian Federation.

If we analyze the second half of the last century, then until the 60s and 70s the local varieties of the Pavlovsk experimental station of VIR formed the basis of the zoned assortment here: Festivalnaya, Zarya, Schedraia; Leningrad Fruit and Vegetable Experimental Station: Northern Yield, Yubileynaya of Leningrad, Purpurovaya; some Moscow varieties - Komsomolskaya Pravda, Obilnaya, Mysovka; some foreign varieties - Zenga Zengana, Junia Smides, Redgontlet, Talisman and some others.

However, in subsequent years, the strawberry culture here began to experience a certain crisis. This was expressed in a widespread decrease in yield due to the spread of dangerous fungal diseases: verticillium wilting, ophtorosis, rhizoctoniae and others. As a result of diseases, the loss of plants on fruiting plantations reached 40-50%. The most common varieties in the recent past, such as Festivalnaya, Zarya, Talisman and a number of others, began to quickly lose their former popularity.

These reasons caused the spontaneous introduction of other strawberry varieties to the North-West of Russia, both from different regions of Russia and from abroad. In this regard, the assortment of strawberries has undergone certain changes here.

Variety Divnaya
Variety Divnaya

Variety Divnaya

A significant contribution to the renewal and expansion of the zoning of the assortment of the leading berry crop was made by the effective work of the St. Petersburg breeder Galina Dmitrievna Aleksandrova, who in these years created new varieties of the intensive type with high winter hardiness, productivity, and large-fruited. They also had good taste and marketability of berries - early maturity, amicable ripening of the harvest, resistance to verticillium and late blight. These were the varieties Krasavitsa, Volshebnitsa, Sudarushka, Divnaya, Tsarskoselskaya, Dynamovka, Udarnitsa.

The first five of these varieties entered the zoned assortment and occupied significant areas in the fruit and berry state farms that existed at that time, not only in the North-West, but also in other regions, and especially in amateur gardening. In subsequent years, she received a number of other varieties: Onega, Favorite, Kapelka, Lakomka, Original. In 2009, the Onega variety was zoned in the North-West region, the rest of the varieties were not transferred to the GSP, but, like all previous varieties, a large army of amateur gardeners are in great demand.

In the same years (the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries), more than 50 new domestic and foreign countries were studied at the State variety plots of the North-West, in research and production associations, in private nurseries, farms and in amateur gardening, which in the changed conditions becomes the main one. the most popular varieties.

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In addition to the varieties bred by G.D. Aleksandrova, the varieties of the Moscow selection were studied from the domestic ones - Nadezhda, Zenit, Borovitskaya, Grenada, Relay, Cinderella, Spasskaya, Toros, Talka (author IV Popova); Michurinskys - Surprise to the Olympics (by K.T. Yarkova); Ruby pendant (by A.A. Zubov); Bryansk - Rusich, Vityaz (author S. D. Aitzhanova) and some others.

From foreign varieties, the Dutch ones were studied - Korona, Elvira, Polka; Canadian - Bounty, Kent, Cavendish; American - Honey, Chandler, Holiday; Scottish - Talisman, Redgauntlet; Norwegian - Ionsok; Danish - Zephyr; Czech - Carmen; Latvian - Junia Smides, German - Zenga Zengana.

Carmen variety
Carmen variety

Carmen variety

When studying these varieties, the task was set to select an assortment that best meets the requirements of modern technologies for their cultivation in specific soil and climatic conditions of the Leningrad region and the North-West region. A large number of the varieties listed above were studied at the Taitsy state farm in the Gatchinsky region, at the Luzhsky and Leningradsky State Variety Areas, at the Agrotechnology Research and Production Center (Pushkin Fruit and Berry Nursery).

In 1998-2003 at the St. Petersburg Agrarian University at the Department of Fruit Growing under the guidance of Doctor of Biological Sciences M.N. Plekhanova, postgraduate students M.N. Petrova and S.F. Loginova carried out thorough research to study the biological characteristics and evaluate 37 varieties of strawberries. The purpose of the study is to select the best of them for growing in broodstock and commercial plantations with elements of modern technologies in all categories of farms and in amateur gardening.

As a result of many years of research, the studied varieties were grouped according to individual economically valuable traits and their complex:

  • early ripening is different - Beauty, Sudarushka, Junia Smides, Zephyr;
  • late ripening - Borovitskaya, Polka, Chandler;
  • high winter hardiness - Sudarushka, Tsarskoselskaya, Divnaya, Onega, Kapelka, Nadezhda, Spasskaya, Surprise to the Olympics, Ionsok, Junia Smides, Zenga Zengana;
  • high yield - Divnaya, Onega, Tsarskoselskaya, Surprise to the Olympics, Sudarushka, Zenga Zengana, Kapelka, Polka, Juniya Smides, Borovitskaya, Ionsok;
  • large-fruited - Wonderful, Talka, Sudarushka, Cinderella, Borovitskaya, Redgontlet, Polka, Zenga Zengana;
  • dessert taste - Beauty, Surprise to the Olympics, Tsarskoye Selo, Divnaya, Sudarushka, Shelf, Crown, Ruby pendant, Zenga Zengana, Talka, Ionsok, Zenith, Cinderella;
  • density and intense color of the pulp - Crown, Polka, Tsarskoye Selo, Carmen, Surprise Olympics;
  • resistance to leaf spot - Onega, Relay, Polka, Redgontlet, Holiday, Toros;
  • high reproduction rate (which is important for brood plantations) - Sudarushka, Onega, Festivalnaya, Surprise Olympics, Tsarskoselskaya, Borovitskaya, Troitskaya, Yonsok, Bounty;
  • low breeding rate (which is of particular interest to amateur gardeners) - Crown, Polka, Talka, Divnaya, Carmen, Lord.
Variety Tsarskoselsky
Variety Tsarskoselsky

Variety Tsarskoselsky

According to the complex of economically valuable traits in these studies, zoned varieties were identified - Divnaya, Tsarskoselskaya, Sudarushka, Onega, Krasavitsa, Cinderella, Junia Smides, Zenga Zengana and promising varieties - Surprise Olympiade, Borovitskaya, Korona, Polka.

It is recommended to grow these varieties in the conditions of the North-West region of Russia both using intensive technology with the use of mulching film, and using standard domestic technology.

Long-term (from 2000 to 2010) trials of a large group of zoned and promising strawberry varieties of domestic and foreign selection are carried out at the Research and Production Center "Agrotechnology" (Pushkin Fruit and Berry Nursery). Here, in the broodstock and industrial plantations, the local varieties of the breeder G.D. Aleksandrova were taken as a basis, which, in the conditions of the nursery (Pushkin), according to a complex of economically valuable traits, turned out to be the most reliable: winter-hardy, high-yielding, large-fruited, with berries of good taste and marketable qualities resistant to the most dangerous fungal disease of strawberries - verticillium wilt. Such varieties during all ten years of testing include Sudarushka, Divnaya, Onega, Tsarskoselskaya, Krasavitsa.

Favorite variety
Favorite variety

Favorite variety

Of the promising varieties, the Michurin variety Surprise Olympiad showed itself well here, and the Dutch varieties - Korona, Polka - were foreign ones; Czech variety - Carmen; Latvian - Junia Smides, German - Zenga Zengana.

Of the new varieties of Galina Dmitrievna Aleksandrova, obtained later, the most promising varieties stand out: a high-yielding variety - Favorit, large-fruited and sweet-fruited - Lakomka. Of the foreign varieties, the Carmen variety is in the greatest demand in amateur gardening, which has a carmine-red color of berries, dark red pulp and an excellent taste of berries, although it is inferior in winter hardiness to other foreign varieties, but has a good restorative ability.

All these varieties successfully reproduce in brood plantations, planted according to intensive technology using black mulching film, and are in unlimited demand by a large army of gardeners in the North-West region of Russia. Given the great demand for these varieties, in the Research and Production Center "Agrotechnology" (Pushkin Fruit and Berry Nursery), the fourth rotation of the mother liquor in the spring of 2010 was laid on black plastic wrap with the most reliable varieties in our conditions. At the same time, varieties were rejected that were less valuable for certain indicators.

Read the second part of the article: Classification of strawberry varieties by ripening time

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