Video: Diseases Of Tomatoes, Peppers And Cucumbers, And Their Prevention
In July, the main headache for gardeners is caused by problems in greenhouses: tomato diseases begin, troubles with peppers, cucumbers get sick.
If you have not done prophylaxis against late blight, then it will definitely start first on potatoes, and then on tomatoes. It is easier to fight late blight on potatoes. It is necessary to spray its tops with any preparation containing copper. The easiest way is to use hom (copper oxychloride) or oxych, polychom, as they are easily diluted in cold water right in the watering can according to the directions on the package.
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If the tomatoes grow outdoors, spray them too. Remember that copper-treated fruits should not be eaten for about three weeks. But if you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, then you should not use copper preparations, since you constantly use everything that grows there for food. In this case, it is necessary to use ordinary iodine (10 ml vial for 10 liters of water). This solution can be stored for several days. First, tear off the leaves affected by late blight (they have black spots surrounded by a large yellow spot). Then, spray any remaining leaves and fruits. After three days, repeat the treatment. Use the remaining solution to combat powdery mildew on black currants.
Add a little soap to it for better adhesion. Treat the bushes with a broom from top to bottom. With normal spraying, the solution rolls off the leaves. Repeat the procedure after three days.
In order to protect the fruits of tomatoes from phytophthora, spray only the fruits with a solution of calcium chloride about a week after spraying the leaves and fruits with iodine. Buy calcium chloride from a pharmacy. It is usually sold in 200 ml bottles. This is a 10% solution. It must be diluted three times with water, that is, add another 500-600 g of water to it.
Processing should begin with the stalk and the remaining sepals of the flowers. It is from them that late blight gets on the fetus. Please note that usually with late blight disease, the sepals and stalks of the fruits are yellow-brown. Do not leave loose flowers. Remove them immediately as they are also a source of infection. Regularly peel off all the lower leaves under the swollen brushes. By mid-July, tomatoes should have only the upper leaves above the last pouring brush.
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At the very end of July, tomatoes should be edged - to cut off all the tops of tall varieties and hybrids in order to stop their further growth and direct all the plant's forces to growing already set fruits. In low-growing tomatoes, they do not perch, since they end their growth with a flower brush and do not grow higher. At this time, all tomatoes should be torn off the buds and flowers so that the plant does not waste its energy on them. Fruits from them do not have time to grow even the size of a hazelnut. Better to let the plant grow up the already set fruits.
In addition, for faster ripening of fruits, it is necessary to create a stressful situation for the plant: to sharply reduce the flow of nutrients. To do this, it is enough to cut off part of the roots: jerk each plant vertically upward, taking it with your hand by the lower part of the stem. Dramatically reduce watering and stop any feeding. In a stressful situation, any plant seeks to leave offspring as quickly as possible, therefore, accelerated ripening of fruits begins.
At the end of July, cold nights usually begin, which pepper does not like very much, it begins to shed ovaries and even fruits. If at the same time it is rainy weather, then rot appears on the fruits at the place of attachment of the stalk, and the fruits fall off. At the same time, in such weather, a white bloom often appears on the stems - stem rot… If you do not take urgent measures, then the rot will ring the stem, and it will fade. As soon as you notice that a plaque has appeared, immediately wipe this place with a dry cloth, then cover it with a gruel of chalk and potassium permanganate, or wash the infected area with a cloth dipped in a solution of potassium permanganate, and dust it well with ash. When fruit rot appears on peppers, tomatoes, eggplants, pour the plants with a solution of calcium nitrate (2 tablespoons per bucket). Add one tablespoon of chlorine-free potassium to the solution.
The same measures should be taken if apical rot appears on the fruit: first a spot appears on the top of the fruit, then it begins to rot. The main problems on cucumbers begin in early July. First of all, a spider mite settles on them. It is difficult to see him without a magnifying glass. It settles on the underside of the leaves. The inhabited leaves brighten at first, and many take this reaction for a lack of nitrogen and begin to intensively water the cucumbers with infusion of manure or weeds. This usually does not help and the leaves begin to die off.
The biopreparation fitoverm helps well against spider mites. It is not a chemical, nor is it toxic to beneficial insects. Fitoverm is absorbed by the leaves and acts in the cell sap of the leaves without penetrating into the fruit. Any pest, both sucking and gnawing, having tasted such a leaf, stops eating and dies of hunger. Two days after spraying with this drug, cucumbers can be eaten.
Spraying garlic infusion on the underside of the leaves also helps well. It has been noticed that the mite does not like the smell of dill, so it should be sown in a greenhouse with cucumbers, of course, not too thickly, otherwise powdery mildew will immediately settle in the thickets.
Good harvests to you!
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