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Formation Of Tomatoes From Superdeterminate To Indeterminate
Formation Of Tomatoes From Superdeterminate To Indeterminate

Video: Formation Of Tomatoes From Superdeterminate To Indeterminate

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Video: Basic Information for Growing Determinate Tomatoes in Your Garden - The Rusted Garden 2013 2023, February
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Tomatoes are the fruits of love

tomato varieties
tomato varieties

And it is true! Rarely does any other vegetable boast such love and distribution in the world as a tomato. As you know, his homeland is South America.

In the Aztec language, the tomato was called "tomatl".

Christopher Columbus brought bright red fruits to Europe. Europeans were surprised at the curiosity and began to call it "love apples". Moreover, in French it sounded pomme d'amoure, and in Italian pommi d'oro. So the word "tomato" was born.

Gardener's guide

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Today we invite to the conversation those gardeners who, first of all, have winter or spring film, glazed greenhouses with or without heating. The tomato among the nightshade is one of the least heat-demanding crops, and can produce crops in the North-West of the Russian Federation even in the open field. But the highest plant productivity is possessed by medium and vigorous varieties and hybrids for protected ground.

That is why we pay special attention to them. True, they differ in economic and biological characteristics (large-fruited, pink-and yellow-fruited, carpal, varieties and hybrids of the "cherry" (cherry) groups, with genes for storage, etc.). But we'll talk about them later. Now let's just divide the varieties of tomatoes into groups of "growth".

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The scheme of the formation of tomato hybrids
The scheme of the formation of tomato hybrids

Figure: 1. Scheme of the formation of superdeterminant varieties and hybrids of tomato

a) in one stem - remove all lateral shoots (stepchildren) 30-35 days before the last harvest, pinching the growth point;

b) in two stems - the 2nd stem is formed from the stepson located in the axil of the leaf under the 1st inflorescence;

c) in three stems - the 2nd stem is formed from the stepson located in the axil of the leaf under the first inflorescence, the 3rd stem is formed from the stepson in the axil of the leaf under the second inflorescence.

Superdeterminate Tomatoes

This is a group of the weakest (no more than 60 cm) and early maturing varieties and hybrids. In them, the first inflorescence is laid after 6-7 leaves, the subsequent ones - after 1 leaf or one after another. The limitation of shoot growth is observed, as a rule, after the formation of the third or fourth inflorescence. This group of tomatoes is for open ground, shelters and plastic greenhouses.

It includes hybrids Leopold, Biathlon, Semko-Sinbad, Boomerang, Olya, Beautiful Lady, Kuzya, Malyshok, Lafanya, Sumoist and others. They are formed in different ways: in one stem, removing all stepchildren (Fig. 1 a), growing until natural self-limitation of growth. In this case, the maximum number of plants is placed on a square meter - about 6 pieces. If they are formed into 2-3 stems (Fig. 1 b, 1 c), then 3-3.5 plants are placed on 1 m².

Determinant tomatoes

Scheme of the formation of determinant tomato varieties
Scheme of the formation of determinant tomato varieties

Figure: 2. Scheme of the formation of determinant varieties and hybrids of tomato

a) in one stem - until natural growth restriction;

b) in one stem, leaving 2-3 stepsons with one inflorescence on each - it is recommended to leave side shoots located in the leaf axils directly under the inflorescences;

c) with the transfer of growth to the lateral shoot - from the stepson located in the axil of the leaf under the 3rd inflorescence, a continuation shoot is formed, while the main stem is pinched over 4-5 inflorescences, leaving 1-2 leaves; on the continuation shoot from the stepson, located in the leaf axil under the first inflorescence, the next continuation shoot is formed, and the previous one is pinched, leaving 1-2 leaves above the second inflorescence.

Plants are 1.0-1.2 m high. The first inflorescence is laid after 7-8 leaves, the subsequent ones - after 1-2 leaves or one after another. Growth restriction occurs after the formation of 4-6 inflorescences.

This is a large and very attractive group of varieties and hybrids for both greenhouses and shelters. Among them are Gunin, Khlynovsky, Viscount, Cosmonaut Volkov, Blagovest, Master, Ilya Muromets, Zvezda, Dobrynya Nikitich, Oxheart, La-la-fa, Portland, Harmony, Red Arrow, Lelya, Marquis, Northern Express, Market Miracle, Stanichnik, Gift of Kuban, Pilot, Maxim, Search, Verlioka, Snack, Ilyich, Kaspar, Natus, Rio Grande, Rio Fuego, Roma RS, Gina, Apple tree of Russia, Siberian precocious, Early 83, Red Hunter, Moscow lights, Moskvich, Maryushka, Max, Dubok, Summer resident, White filling 241 and others.

They are formed either into one stem until natural growth restriction (Fig. 2 a), or into one stem, leaving 2-3 stepsons with one, less often - two inflorescences in each (Fig. 2 b). Or they are formed with a transfer to a lateral shoot - from the stepson located in the leaf axil under the third inflorescence (Fig. 2c).

Multi-tiered formation of medium-sized tomatoes
Multi-tiered formation of medium-sized tomatoes

Figure: 3. Multi-tiered formation of medium-sized plants of determinant varieties and hybrids

a) main stem with 4-6 inflorescences;

b) the first stepson left in a leaf under the 3rd or 4th inflorescences of the main stem;

c) stepson left under the 2nd or 3rd inflorescences of the first stepson.

Medium-sized varieties are formed in several tiers (Fig. 3). Depending on the formation, 3-5 plants are placed per 1 m².

Semi-determinate tomatoes

Semi-determinant tomato plant formation
Semi-determinant tomato plant formation

Figure: 4. Formation of plants of semi-determinant varieties and hybrids

a) main stem with 8-10 inflorescences;

b) we remove the weak backup stepson;

c) reserve stepson from under the sixth inflorescence of the main stem;

d) we leave the reserve stepson;

e) remove the backup stepson.

Plants 1.2-1.5 m high. The first inflorescence is laid after 9-10 leaves, and the next ones - after 2-3. Growth restriction occurs after the formation of 6-8 inflorescences. These are varieties and hybrids Kostroma, Margarita, Associate Professor, Energo, Adonis, Flamingo, Lezhebok, Da barao (gold, orange, pink, black, yellow, red), Lime, Harlequin, Podmoskovny, Eunis, Gamayun, Marmand, Shagane and others. They are usually named as indeterminate hybrids (Fig. 5) in one, less often in two stems, or as in Fig. 4.

Indeterminate hybrids

These are varieties and hybrids that do not restrict growth. This is the largest group of varieties and hybrids. The plants are vigorous - over 2 m tall. The first inflorescence is laid only after 9-11 leaves, and the subsequent ones - after 3 leaves. These are varieties and hybrids Samara, Botanist, Bravo, Reflex, Fatalist, Pharaoh, Bityug, Botticelli, Instinct, Funtik, Festive fireworks, Kronos, Intuition, Admiral, Alena, Bolero, Blues, Filippok, Vasilievna, Inspiration, Swallow, Lydia, Nasha Masha, Titanic, Parrot, Businka, Winter Cherry, Marissa, Martha, Golden rain, Russian size and many others.

Formation of tomatoes into one stem
Formation of tomatoes into one stem

Figure: 5. Formation of plants into one stem

a) leaves;

b) the main stem;

c) deleted stepsons

As a rule, they are formed into a single stem, removing all lateral shoots (Fig. 5). 30-35 days before the last harvest (August dew, the onset of late blight disease), pinch the growing point. Plants are usually placed 2.5-3.5 per 1 m².

The division into groups is conditional, but it should be adhered to in order to choose the right variety or hybrid for your cultivation facilities, properly grow seedlings and place them in greenhouses and shelters, and then form accordingly. Perseverance, good luck and success to you!

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