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Video: Formation Of Tomatoes. Fight Tomato Disease
Read the previous part. ← Planting and caring for tomato seedlings
Forming and garter tomatoes
In our conditions, tomatoes must be formed, since, alas, one cannot count on the harvest of numerous stepchildren. If tomatoes are not formed, then they continue to grow and branch out indefinitely, to form very small fruits, most of which obviously will not have time to ripen.
Therefore, you cannot do without the formation of tomatoes, and the following can be called the basic principles of formation:
- once a week (during the period of intensive growth of stepchildren, if possible twice a week), they break out extra stepsons, and if there is the required light space, 2-3-4 of the strongest and most well-located stepsons are left on the bushes;
- at the beginning of August, the tops of the plants and all the flowers are pinched to give the opportunity to fill and ripen the already set fruits.
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Now I will explain a little about one point in relation to the stepsons. As a rule, it is recommended to leave 1-2 strong stepson on the bushes in the middle zone of the bush. All others are removed as soon as they appear.
As my many years of experience show, there can be much more stepsons left on the bush. How many? It is difficult to answer this question unequivocally - it all depends on the volume of light space, sufficiency of nutrition and your personal readiness to engage in regular redistribution of tomato shoots in this very light space so that there is enough light for all shoots, without exception. There can be no question of any shading - the plants stretch out from it, they have yellowing of leaves, dropping of buds and ovaries. Therefore, if you want to harvest a very large harvest per unit area, then you can safely leave not 1-2, but a larger number of stepchildren on the plants.
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It is also worth noting the importance of properly tying the plants. As practice shows, few think about this issue, most adhere to the basic scheme: once they fix pieces of twine at the top of the greenhouse above the supposed planting sites of the bushes and then every year they simply tie each bush to this twine. It is not right. Why? For two reasons. Firstly, pathogens can be on the twine, and secondly, fixed garters require the same garter for all plants. At the same time, each hybrid variety has its own characteristics and requires its own living space. And each plant is individual: one can develop better, the other worse. Rigid mounts will not give room to the best bush on which one would like to shoot another trunk.
At the same time, another, less leafy and less developed plant will take up extra space. Therefore, if you want to seriously increase the yield per unit of greenhouse area, then it is better to tie up the main shoot of each plant equally at an equal distance from each other, and tie up all other shoots depending on the degree of development of the plant and the presence of unfilled illuminated space in the greenhouse.
Pruning leaves is also a fairly effective technique., but you need to do it wisely. Most often, here they are limited to trimming the lower leaves - those that are located below the first brush, then, as the fruit is removed, it is additionally possible to trim a few more leaves. As a rule, they start trimming the leaves 3-4 weeks after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse, that is, when the fruits on the first brushes begin to pour actively). At the same time, no more than 1-2 leaves from one tomato are cut at a time, otherwise the plants get severe stress: their growth will stop, and some of the fruits in the lower part will no longer grow. Naturally, as the harvest progresses, the last uncollected brush is higher, and therefore the process of cutting leaves is repeated. In addition, it is possible, especially in the case of thickening of the plantings in the second half of summer, to cut off leaves on the plants and higher, but not entirely, but about 1/3 of the leaf plate.This technique provides a more intense ripening of the crop. However, they should not be abused.
Memo for forming tomatoes
- The number of left stepchildren is a conditional value and depends on the degree of illumination of the shoots. You can leave more than 1-2 stepchildren on the plant, but subject to a reasonable redistribution of shoots in order to provide them with the best illumination and maximum use of the light space inside the greenhouse.
- When tying up, use only new (that is, not previously used) ropes, or rather, wide ribbons of cotton or other similar fabric. Tying with twine is undesirable, because when using it (or a narrow ribbon), they cut into the plant under the weight of the fruit and vegetative mass.
- It is necessary to monitor the garter of the brushes, otherwise the stalk may bend and the growth of the fruit will stop.
We fight disease
Diseases in tomatoes are now abundant (I longingly remember my own childhood, when, in fact, late blight was the only problem in this regard). Alas, today tomatoes do not get sick with anything: late blight, alternaria (dry spot), anthracnose, cladosporium (brown spot), etc. In the conditions of the Urals, brown spotting has become a real scourge, drugs for effectively combating which are not provided for ordinary gardeners at all (copper-containing drugs, of course, also help, but not very much), and to buy famous drugs such as, say, Quadris from the company " Syngenta "in bulk quantities, few people can afford.
However, fungicides are commercially available for most diseases. It is only important to take seriously the organization of the process of protection against diseases.
The first thing to do in the presence of diseases is to ensure the complete destruction of post-harvest residues in all possible ways. Then change the soil and carry out a complete disinfection of the greenhouses or, which is much more reliable, especially in the case of brown spot, generally transfer the tomatoes to another greenhouse, if there is one. The culture can be returned to its original place no earlier than in four years. In addition, it is necessary to ensure timely ventilation of the greenhouses and prevent condensation from appearing on the plants, which provokes the spread of diseases. It is completely unacceptable to find open containers with water in tomato greenhouses (many have open barrels of water for irrigation in greenhouses), since this significantly increases the humidity level in the greenhouse and accelerates the development of diseases.
It is equally important to carry out regular spraying with fungicides, alternating them. And most importantly, one cannot wait for the manifestation of the disease, one must forestall it! The first two treatments are usually recommended to be carried out with systemic or contact-systemic fungicides (Quadris, Ridomil Gold, Acrobat, Thanos, etc.), subsequent treatments are carried out with contact preparations, among which Ordan are the most accessible to ordinary gardeners, as well as banal copper oxychloride. The duration of the protective action is approximately 7-14 days, but here you need to adhere to the instructions - the frequency of treatments depends on the specific drug and weather conditions.
Disease Control Memo
- Thorough destruction of post-harvest residues and disinfection of greenhouses.
- From the moment of planting seedlings in greenhouses, it is necessary to carry out regular spraying with fungicides. In cold, rainy summers, the spraying intervals are shortened.
- During the entire growing season, ensure regular ventilation of the greenhouses and water the plants only with warm water.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by the author