Table of contents:
Video: Temperature Conditions In The Greenhouse And The Formation Of Peppers
There is no vegetable garden without peppers. Part 6
Temperature regime for fruiting plants
In different publications, this regime for adult plants is interpreted with slight discrepancies, but + 18 … + 25 ° С is considered optimal. If, after planting the plants, the air temperature is + 8 … + 10 ° C, then their growth stops, they will drop flowers; at an air temperature of + 12 … + 13 ° С, they grow slowly, but. Before the beginning of fruiting on a clear sunny day, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of + 24 … + 28 ° С. In cloudy weather, reduce it to + 20 … + 22 ° С, and at night - to + 17 … + 19 ° С.
With the beginning of fruiting on a sunny day, pepper needs a temperature of + 24 … + 30 ° С, in cloudy weather + 20 … + 22 ° С, at night + 18 … + 20 ° С. If these requirements are met, then we northerners should not grow peppers at all. However, they learned how to get yields of 10-12 kg / m² on biofuel, not only in technical ripeness, but also in biological one.
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In practice, peppers have shown that they can grow and bear fruit at lower temperatures. Our nights in the swamps are cold. During the whole summer there are 2-3 warm nights, and usually it is + 11 … + 12 ° С, in the greenhouse on such a night it is two degrees warmer. Saves biofuel, i.e. the roots of the peppers are warm, but it also dies out in May during prolonged cold snaps (rains with snow), the temperature of the soil on critical days drops to + 10 ° С. Then you have to worry, because the groundwater is close under the greenhouse, and from torrential rains they rise even higher, so biofuel dies out. But still, over 15 years of working with peppers, not a single plant has ever died.
Probably, this is due to the hardening of seeds and seedlings. And so that the peppers do not shed flowers and ovaries, I make the load on the plant less. In cloudy, rainy weather, I open the doors in the greenhouse, thereby lowering the temperature to + 18 ° C. Two thermometers near the peppers are in the ground, and the third is at the top of the greenhouse. Only a thermometer will teach you how to manage plants. Some gardeners in cloudy weather do not open greenhouses and greenhouses at all. This is mistake.
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After each watering, loosen the soil near the plants. Loosening should be shallow, because the root system of the pepper is not very deep and not very powerful. In the southern regions in the open field, gardeners water the peppers between rows, and loosen the soil with a little hilling. In the northern regions, this is not necessary, because any hilling causes the formation of new roots, thereby slowing down the growth and development of the plant. And we count every warm day. Therefore, we only do shallow loosening. After the crowns are closed (if you look at the peppers from above, they seem to touch each other), the loosening is quite shallow - 1-1.5 cm, you just need to knock down the crust a little. It is very useful to add fresh soil 1-2 times a summer if the roots are bare. But this work is very laborious, not everyone can do it.
Practice has shown that it is possible not to add; nothing terrible will happen, they bear fruit well without bedding. From frequent feeding with slurry, a dense crust remains, especially on clay soil, and light loosening does not help much. In such a situation, it is possible to make punctures between the plants with a pitchfork to the full depth of their horns so that the peppers do not suffocate under the crust.
Many years ago, when there were no hybrids yet, the author O.A. Ganichkina proposed to form the varieties as follows: the plant will grow by 20-25 cm, cut off the very top of it. Then the stepsons will wake up and begin to grow. The lower ones should be removed, and the upper 3-5 should be left. The number of stepchildren depends on the food area, i.e. distance between plants. This technique can be used if the plant breaks while transporting seedlings.
It is not necessary to throw it away, the same harvest will be obtained from the awakened stepchildren, only later. I tested this in practice. Now most of the hybrids are highly branching, therefore, to obtain a full harvest in biological ripeness, it is necessary to form peppers. If the gardener does not have time to engage in formation for a long time, then you can not do this, but simply plant peppers less often, i.e. give the distance between plants more than I do, but be sure to do the following:
1. Remove the sterile side shoots. You can see them if you look closely. They have no buds or flowers. Moreover, they try to grow inside the crown, thickening it. In the south, in the open field, I did not break them out, they seemed to save peppercorns from sunburn. And in our northern gardens we catch every ray of sunlight.
2. After closing the crown, remove the leaves along the central shoot to the fork. At one time it is necessary to remove 2-3 leaves from the plant. A few days later - the next 2-3 leaves, etc.
2. Systematically remove stepchildren on the central shoot to the fork, but also not all at once.
By forming the plants, I regulate the yield. I will give a small load - I will get an early harvest in biological ripeness. If you need to get the peppers later, I give a big load on the plant. For example: Indalo F1 - gave a load of two fruits per plant, i.e. when they were well tied, the rest of the ovaries were removed. These two peppers weighed 800 g (500 g and 300 g) at biological ripeness. Nearby is the same other plant - it led in three shoots and with a load of 15 fruits, but at that time they were still in technical ripeness and not large, their total weight was 1 kg 400 g.
Consider several options for the formation, on which not only the harvest depends, but also the entire planting. The pepper plant first grows as a single shoot. Then it starts branching. At the fork, i.e. in a fork, two or three shoots are obtained.
1. If there are few seedlings, the plant can be formed into three shoots, each of them tied with a separate twine to the trellis or to the stake. Increase the distance between plants.
2. Most often they form in two shoots, the third must be cut off. If the agricultural technology is at a high level and the feeding area is sufficient, then 1 fruit and 1 leaf can be left on the third shoot, and the rest of the third shoot can be removed. But if the spring is overcast and crowded, then it is better to remove the third shoot completely. Sometimes I will leave 1 fruit on the third shoot, but every time I make sure that it is not necessary to do this. Firstly, I reduce the distance between the plants, and secondly, at the same level in the fork, three large fruits are tied, then it becomes cramped for them, as a result, one pepper always turns out to be bent, crooked. Therefore, we leave two shoots - this is the skeleton of the plant, we tie each of them with twine to a trellis or to a stake.
3. If there are a lot of seedlings and you are sorry to give it away, then the plant can be formed into one shoot, the rest can be cut out. Planting density should be increased by 1.5-2 times. This method is used by some gardeners in some European countries. The harvest is not lost, it is just convenient to work. In such cases, it is necessary to recalculate 1m? In order to know more accurately how much water is needed, how much fertilizer. I have not yet tried to form in one shoot, but this season I will try to do it and calculate the yield, i.e. I will compare the cultivation in one shoot and in two shoots.
How is the harvest formed on the left shoots? In skeletal stems, further branching will begin as they grow. And with each next branching, you must leave the strongest shoot as a continuation shoot, and pinch the weak one on 1 fruit and 1 leaf. A large flower will form at the fork itself, and a good fruit will develop from it.
The easiest way is to leave 1 fruit, 1 leaf and a continuation shoot in the fork, and completely cut out a weak shoot with a small flower. This variant of formation (leaving only a large flower, and cutting a small one) is good in a cold, cloudy summer, when feeding is disrupted, so the load on the plant can be less, i.e. the number of fruits will be less, but they will be large and ripen faster. I try to leave a large flower on the shoot of large-fruited peppers, I cut out a trifle.
There are no trellises in low greenhouses, so a stake (not a small stick or a peg) is driven between two plants. The shoots are first tied with twine, and then attached to the stake.
Bouquet-type peppers (Dobrynya Nikitich, Winnie the Pooh) do not need to be tied up, they are low and do not branch. But when they tie 7-9 fruits at their top, then you have to tie them up, since they lean heavily on one side, pulling out the roots. I use these varieties as seals near the glass itself. They bear fruit in early July, then I break them out and remove. True, the plants of the Dobrynya Nikitich variety can be left for the second harvest.
I harvest from the top in early July, remove excess leaves from it, and soon large flowers appear all over the shoot. Before pouring the fruits, I removed the leaves along the shoot, the stem is bare. And flowers appear in the former axils of the leaves. I tried to limit the number of flowers so that there were no extra fruits, but it doesn't work, the shoot is so tightly covered with flowers. Plants then themselves throw off excess flowers and ovaries.
Many gardeners harvest the fruits in technical ripeness in order to get a larger yield, and then ripen them indoors. Peppers that are light green in technical ripeness, lettuce, yellow, lemon color, i.e. light-colored, good in technical ripeness. These are varieties and hybrids Tenderness, Dobrynya Nikitich, Kapitoshka, Krepysh, Winnie the Pooh, Yubileiny Semko F1, Katyusha, Alyonushka F1, Yaroslav, Dolphin, Ivolga, Alyosha Popovich, Ermak, etc. In varieties and hybrids, the fruits of which are dark green in technical ripeness, the harvest must be removed when they begin to stain slightly, light strokes or spots of red or yellow appear on the peppers. Such fruits, when ripening, will completely color in 2-3 days.
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