Table of contents:
- Formation of Chinese Schisandra
- Reproduction of Chinese lemongrass
- How to choose planting material for Chinese lemongrass
- The healing properties of Chinese magnolia vine
- Chinese lemongrass recipes
Video: Schisandra Chinensis - Reproduction And Formation, Medicinal Properties And Recipes. Plant Of The XXI Century - 3
Formation of Chinese Schisandra
An adult plant is formed from 5-6 main shoots, the rest are cut at the soil level. Old, unproductive branches (at the age of 15-16 years) are removed at the base, replacing them with young shoots selected from the growth. The onset of berry formation is usually noted approximately 40-45 days after flowering. The fruits are formed after about three months. When harvesting ripe berries, the brushes should be removed from the plant very carefully so as not to damage the vine (it is better to use scissors for this purpose). When collecting, storing and bulkheading the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, do not use easily oxidized (metal) utensils, otherwise this may cause poisoning.
The berries are not easily transportable, easily crumple, choke, lose juice and, as a result, begin to ferment, becoming covered with a white fungus coating. For this reason, it is not recommended to store the removed berries for more than two days without subjecting them to processing or drying.
Reproduction of Chinese lemongrass
Schisandra reproduces by seeds and vegetatively (rhizome shoots, layering, and less often green cuttings). For seed propagation, it is necessary to use only freshly harvested material or that has been stored in a cool place and dry for at least a year. It should also be known that Schisandra seeds are characterized by a number of features: they are heterogeneous in size, weight, and even in color. Some of the seeds (15-35% depending on the batch), outwardly normal, but morphologically defective, have no embryo or endosperm under the shell, which leads to sparse seedlings. In full-fledged seeds, the embryo (its size is 0.5x0.2 mm) is also underdeveloped and is in varying degrees of development (the degree of ripening of berries plays a role), and for complete swelling they need water up to 50% of their initial mass. This phenomenon subsequently leads to a prolonged period of seed germination and emergence of seedlings. The growth and further development of the embryo occurs during the so-called stratification.
Good results are obtained by podzimny sowing in November in open ground: then the seeds undergo natural (natural) stratification. Schizandra shoots emerge on the soil surface for a long time (at the end of May); their appearance can last for 2-2.5 months (some of the seeds, according to some authors, are capable of sprouting only in the second year).
As a rule, first of all, the hypocotal knee appears in the form of a loop, which gradually straightens. Then subcotal leaves come out, covered with a seed coat, from which the plant is liberated for a long time. After shedding the shell, the leaves straighten and increase in size. Bright green, large, fleshy cotyledonous leaves of lemongrass during this period are very similar in appearance to cucumber seedlings.
For prophylaxis (protection against fungal diseases), the seedlings are watered once a month with a slightly boron solution of potassium permanganate. If it was possible to get the seeds late and there is no possibility of sowing them in open ground, then they are laid for stratification in January for subsequent sowing in March - April. Then the stratification process includes the monthly content of seeds in a wet substrate (sawdust, sand) (room temperature) and in a refrigerator (in the basement) (0 … 5 ° C). Then they are kept for 2-3 weeks until they swell, after which they are sown in planting boxes. Seedlings in the phase of 3-4 leaves dive into containers with fertile soil, leaving a feeding area of 5x5 cm for each plant.
In the first year of life, seedlings grow very slowly, have a small growth (7-10 cm) and weak foliage. This phenomenon is typical for this period of lemongrass development; nitrogen fertilizers should not be abused in order to accelerate their growth. The next year, the seedlings grow much faster and may be a very suitable material for replanting them to a permanent place in the garden. But more often this material is ready for planting in a permanent place at the age of two to three years (transferred with a sufficient lump of earth), and it is suitable for fruiting for another 2-3 years. If it is not possible to transfer a seedling with a sufficient amount of soil adjacent to its roots, its root system is treated with a thick clay mash, adding a mullein to it.
As already noted, the rhizomes of lemongrass bear a large number of dormant buds, which, upon awakening, give abundant growth around the mother plant during the first two years. The offspring, separated from the latter, can be used in the future as planting material. By the way, lemongrass can also be propagated by root cuttings - pieces of rhizomes (up to 10 cm long) with 2-3 dormant buds, which require daily watering to awaken. Sometimes in spring a long shoot is added, which by the end of the growing season forms a sufficiently good root system from which it can be planted. When propagated by green cuttings, its branches are used with three leaves shortened by a third. In cuttings, the base is treated with a stimulant solution, after which they are planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 ° and watered regularly. After two years, such material is quite ready for planting in a permanent place, and begins to bear fruit in 1.5-2 years.
It is nice to know that in the last decade the popularity of this plant in our country has increased greatly. Lemongrass really deserves cultivation on every household plot, considering that over the past 25-30 years, fruit-bearing populations have almost disappeared in the forests of Primorsky Krai due to increased collection of its berries and damage to its vines. Predatory and barbaric picking of berries with the removal of plants from supporting trees to quickly obtain fruits leads to the death of vines, since the latter do not rise. Lemongrass plants found in the herbaceous layer of spruce-fir and mixed larch forests are in a depressed state, they are undersized due to the strong shading of the bush by tall trees and overgrown shrubs and do not have the opportunity to climb on supports, do not bear fruit. Forest fires also destroy vines,as their flaky and flaky bark is highly flammable. Further extermination of fruiting lemongrass populations will most likely lead to their complete disappearance in their natural habitats. As a result, it turns out: the number of wild lemongrass is decreasing, and the pharmaceutical industry is increasing the demand for it.
How to choose planting material for Chinese lemongrass
When buying, the Schisandra plant itself is easy to recognize: all its parts (flowers, leaves, stems and young underground shoots) smell like lemon. But it is important to find out which of the two forms (dioecious or monoecious) you acquire, or it is obtained directly from the seeds.
The varieties Sadovy 1, Pervenets and others bred in research institutions are extremely rare on sale, and buying them from your hands is fraught with the acquisition of material that does not correspond to the desired one. I believe that in 10-15 years lemongrass will multiply so much in our region that it can be found on every site, just like, for example, currants or gooseberries. By the way, I do not advise keeping this deciduous liana in room conditions, since this plant is deciduous, a rest period should go through at a rather low temperature.
In the conditions of the gardens of the non-chernozem zone of the country, serious diseases and pests have not yet been noted in Schisandra. Possibly slight damage to leaves by caterpillars from the group of polyphagous pests. Birds do not touch the creeper berries. In order to prevent mycoses, it is recommended to remove fallen leaves from under the vines in the autumn and sprinkle the leaves with a 1% Bordeaux mixture in early spring.
The healing properties of Chinese magnolia vine
Lemongrass has the greatest healing properties in its seeds. It is caused by a whole complex of biologically active substances (lignans), which determine the stimulating, tonic and adaptogenic effect of lemongrass preparations on the body. Fruits accumulate macronutrients: potassium, manganese, calcium, iron, etc. They also contain boron, titanium, molybdenum and silver. Leaves, shoots, rhizomes and roots of lemongrass are also rich in essential oils and vitamins. Thus, the leaves contain five times more vitamin C than fruits (130 mg%). Stimulating, tonic and adaptogenic substances are also found in the pulp, skin and fruits of berries, in the leaves, bark, shoots, rhizomes and roots of lemongrass.
Thus, all parts of the vine serve as a source of biologically active compounds. When cultivated in the garden, the valuable properties of this plant are preserved. In different regions of the country, depending on the conditions and place of its cultivation, the chemical composition of lemongrass may fluctuate somewhat.
Chinese lemongrass recipes
Juices, syrups, compotes, jams, fruit drinks and much more are prepared from lemongrass berries at home. Before processing, the berries are separated from the stalk, sorted out and washed with boiled water.
Fresh lemongrass in sugar
The berries are dried on gauze, mixed with a double amount of granulated sugar, placed in half-liter glass jars with a well-ground lid, stored in the refrigerator.
Juice is squeezed out of ripe berries (through 2 layers of gauze), which is poured into sterile bottles with a capacity of 100-250 ml, stored in a hermetically sealed refrigerator or sterilized for 5 minutes at 90 ° C. Freshly squeezed juice prepared in this way in a well-sealed container is stored for years without losing its qualities (but use an open container as soon as possible, because the juice quickly molds, especially at room temperature). Natural lemongrass juice is also obtained in this way. Ripe fruits in glass or enamel dishes are covered with a layer of granulated sugar. After 3-4 days, the berries fully release the juice, which is placed in tightly sealed glass bottles. The juice is used to acidify and flavor many dishes, to bunch wines. It can be added to jelly or compotes from other fruits, it gives them a bright color and pleasant aroma. For example: apples of winter varieties are thoroughly washed and placed in sterile jars with lemongrass berries, then poured with boiling preservative solution (for 1 liter of water, 300 g of honey or granulated sugar, 30-50 g of apple cider vinegar). After sterilization, the jars are rolled up. The juice can be used as a seasoning for tea (a teaspoon per glass).
The juice is poured into an enamel bowl, sugar is added (1.5 kg per 1 liter of juice), heated, stirring, until the sugar dissolves and poured into sterile bottles. Store in a cool, dark place.
Lemongrass fruit drink
1 liter of syrup is diluted with 10 liters of chilled boiled water, kept in a cool place for 24 hours. Served as a refreshing drink.
Starch diluted in cold water is poured into the boiling fruit drink, stirred and removed from the heat at the time of boiling.
Lemongrass juice from dried berries
For the preparation of dried products, the fruits are scattered on cheesecloth or burlap in one layer, sorted, slightly dried in air, dried in an oven at a temperature of 50-55 ° C for 3-4 days. Dried berries are stored in an open glass container, as in a closed one they damp and deteriorate, or in bags, bags in a dry ventilated area. Shelf life is 2 years.
To prepare juice, 3-4 tablespoons of dried fruits are poured with a liter of water, boiled for 10 minutes in a sealed enamel bowl, insisted for 10-12 hours, filtered through cheesecloth, sugar is added (a glass per liter of liquid), heated until it dissolves with constant stirring, poured in the container.
Dried leaves and shoots
The collection of leaves begins in the first half of August. No more than a quarter of the leaves are taken from the plant, so as not to disrupt the process of successful ripening of the fruit of the vine. For this event, choose warm, clear days after the dew has dried. In order not to damage the bushes, the leaves are only plucked from the bottom, cutting off thick, juicy cuttings, crushed and laid out in a thin layer on gauze or paper, always under a canopy in the shade or in a well-ventilated room. From direct sunlight, the leaves become discolored, lose their natural color; from moisture they turn black and moldy. The raw material is turned over at least once a day. Leaf shrinkage is 70-80%. Store the workpiece in glass jars so as not to lose its flavor. Dry leaves and shoots are an excellent addition to tea. For brewing tea, take 10 g (3-4 tablespoons) of dry mass per liter of boiling water.
Pure berry juice is filtered through cheesecloth and 200 g of granulated sugar and 150-200 ml of drinking alcohol are added to 1 liter of juice. Then the mixture is shaken, poured into bottles and corked with wooden corks, coated with sealing wax. For two weeks, the bottles are kept in the refrigerator (at 2 … 5 ° C), shaking several times a day. Then they defend a month.
Fresh berries are covered with sugar 1: 1 and kept for 2-3 days at room conditions. When the juice comes out of the berries, it is poured into a separate bowl (1-3 l bottle). Unwashed berries are added to the juice (3-5 raisins and, if possible, 5-7 raspberries, black currants and chokeberry). A sterile medical thin glove is put on the bottle, in one finger of which a small hole is made with a needle. It is through it that gas will come out during the fermentation of the juice. After the end of this process, the wine is poured into small containers and sealed tightly.
A 70% alcoholic tincture is prepared from the washed crushed schisandra seeds. Store in a cool, dark place. For medicinal purposes, use 20-30 drops 2-3 times a day before meals or 4 hours after meals. Also well known is a 20% tincture of lemongrass seeds, prepared on the basis of 96% alcohol (at a lower alcohol concentration, the active substances of lemongrass are extracted worse).
To prepare it, take an equal amount of dry leaves, stems and berries, grind, pour 250 ml of boiling water and insist (you can in a thermos). I want to warn you: before starting a regular long-term intake of lemongrass concentrates, it is still advisable to consult a doctor, since this is a fairly strong biostimulant, and each person has his own norm; in case of overdose, overexcitation of the cardiovascular and nervous system is possible