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What To Do In The Garden And Vegetable Garden In October
What To Do In The Garden And Vegetable Garden In October

Video: What To Do In The Garden And Vegetable Garden In October

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Video: THINGS TO DO IN YOUR GARDEN IN OCTOBER 2023, February
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Until the cold came …

Until the cold came …
Until the cold came …

All gardeners and summer residents noted that the past April was not as warm as it had been over the past few years, and the weather in May and mid-June was unexpectedly cool. The equalization of the average indicator of the sum of effective temperatures began only in the second decade of June. And although in July we had to "fry" a little, the lack of heat could still be noticed by a slight delay in the development of horticultural crops and until the end of the growing season of plants.

Therefore, we feel somewhat deprived of the even favorable weather, looking forward to October, believing that it will please us with a sufficient number of sunny days that will allow us to finish gardening and complete the preparation of the garden for the coming winter. But "surprises" and even snow (it happens sometimes in the third decade of the month) can also be expected from it, it is not for nothing that people called this month "gloomy" and "wintertime".

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In October, the primary concern of gardeners and gardeners is the end of the harvest and laying it down for long-term storage, either processed or fresh. This is the time of preparation of perennial crops for the upcoming wintering, so each of us has the task to carry out all the work in a timely manner: to help the plants overcome the cold season so that they will please us with a good harvest next year.

This month, poisoned baits against small rodents (mice and rats) are purchased from the retail network and laid out.

It does not hurt to examine the black currant bushes for the detection of buds inhabited by a kidney mite. Damaged kidneys are swollen, much larger than healthy ones: diseased kidneys are harvested and burned. They also periodically check the trapping belts, removing harmful insects from under them that are going to overwinter there; if necessary, replace old fishing belts with fresh specimens. They inspect the raspberry plantation, cutting out the stems that have matured, which may be affected by fungal diseases.

Many gardeners are digging up their plot this month. During autumn cultivation, the resulting large lumps of earth are not broken, the soil surface is not leveled (this favors the accumulation of moisture and better freezing of the lumps). In the spring, these pieces of land are well warmed up by the sun's rays, and then it is not difficult to quickly destroy them with a rake. On those household plots that may be flooded by spring flood waters, it does not hurt to play it safe: there they make temporary grooves where excess water flows.

For later crops of the future harvest, the soil is digged to a depth of 25-30 cm, which ensures the best accumulation of moisture in it by the spring. Under the plants of early-spring planting dates, the beds are dug to a depth of no more than 13-15 cm (such a measure is needed so that after the snow melts, the soil has time to dry out quickly enough and by the time these crops are planted, excess water could go away).

Digging a site for the future planting of potatoes and vegetable crops is carried out with a shovel, and under fruit trees, berry and ornamental shrubs - with a pitchfork, so as not to damage their root system located in the upper layers (while the pitchforks are kept parallel to the tree trunks): the soil is loosened deeper along the periphery of these cultures, smaller - at the trunk. To avoid injury to the root system of berry species such as gooseberries and currants, especially if they are too close together and the roots are located quite close to the surface, soil loosening is limited to a depth of 7-8 cm.If a distance of 1 or 2 or even 15 m is observed between the bushes during planting, digging of the earth to a depth of 13-15 cm is allowed.

Leaves of berry bushes are preferably not embedded in the soil here, but collected in a compost heap. Dry fruits of apple, pear, cherry, plum and other plants should not remain in the crown of trees. It is important to remove them in a timely manner, since they are breeding grounds for most fungal diseases. This technique is necessary in connection with the outbreak of a serious disease - "moniliosis", noted in the North - West region in the last 3-4 years, and in the spring, chemical treatment is required against this mycosis. From under the fruit trees, a carrion is chosen. It is removed from the site immediately (it is better to bury it to a depth of at least 50-60 cm), since it contains moth caterpillars.

Young plants of fruit trees and berry bushes (for safety net) and thermophilic species, which are increasingly planted by gardeners in our Leningrad region, are sheltered only with the onset of stable frosts. An earlier shelter prolongs the vegetation of plants and reduces their winter hardiness.

October is a suitable month for improving clay (as well as heavy) soils during planting of fruit crops: organic matter (compost, manure or peat), various leavening agents (sawdust and sand) are introduced.

According to experts, planting seedlings of fruit trees and young bushes of berry bushes on heavy soils directly into the pits is undesirable. These pits have dense walls, and as a result, an excess of rainfall or melt water accumulates, which can then lead to damping out and death of the root system of plants. To avoid such a phenomenon, experts recommend digging a trench along the line of a number of fruit trees (80 cm wide, 50 cm deep). Sometimes it is led to the drainage ditch in order to remove excess water, while the bottom of the trench is given a slight slope towards the ditch.

In damp areas, where an excess of moisture is often observed (especially in spring), young trees are planted on the soil surface, arranging a bulk mound. I am forced to carry out such an operation on my site and practice when planting with other gardeners. I pre-dig the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm, I apply mineral fertilizers and compost. I set the young plant to the hammered cola on the dug up ground and add good soil (you cannot take deep soil from the infertile layers) and a lot of compost. Then the seedling is on a hill up to 50-60 cm high and at least one meter wide (and in order to protect the root system, it can be insulated for the winter). In the next 2-3 years, the size of the hill is increased to 1.5 m in diameter, and later, after the annual filling of the earth, it reaches 2-2.5 m.

In October, they are also improving the quality of sandy soils in the area of ​​the site where they plan to plant fruit crops. This event is very important, since light soils have high water permeability (weakly retaining water, they contribute to the washing out of nutrients and fertilizers into the lower layers).

Sandy soils also need improvement because they tend to be deficient in magnesium and potassium. During this period, lime, a small part of mineral fertilizers and more organic matter are added. The neutralization of sandy soils is carried out, for example, by mixing them with dolomite flour (about 1 kg / m² at a pit depth of 60 cm and up to 1.4 kg at a depth of 80 cm). Recall that in order to increase the water-holding capacity of sandy soil when planting fruit trees, it is imperative not to forget about arranging a high-quality layer at the bottom of the pit (a mixture of clay and peat).

According to experts, 20-25 kg of humus or compost and 75-100 g of double superphosphate and potassium sulphide are added to one seat (80 cm in diameter) under an apple tree and a pear (or the last two components are replaced by 0.5 kg of wood ash). For enrichment with magnesium, 100-110 g of potassium-magnesium concentrate or potassium magnesium is also introduced into sandy soil. It should be noted: if potassium magnesium is used, then potassium sulfate can be omitted, and when using a potassium magnesium concentrate of this potassium salt, only 40-50 g are applied. All these fertilizers are well mixed with the soil in the lower part of the pit, without disturbing the protective peat-clay layer.

Every gardener already understands that it is wiser to purchase seedlings in special nurseries, giving preference to biennials. If annuals are planted or transferred, which I often practice myself, if necessary, even moving 7-8-month-old specimens, they are covered with high quality so that they do not suffer from winter frosts. As a rule, I set (only until late spring) around such a seedling of a fruit tree or around a young bush of a berry bush 4-5 sticks (higher than the plant itself), and pull a large plastic bag over them, sprinkling the edges with soil. If there is a need for watering, I temporarily raise the edges of the bag.

Older seedlings (3-4 years old or more) take root more difficult, since they already have a relatively large root system that is easily damaged during transplantation. If it is necessary to transfer such adult plants, especially those who have not completed the preparation for the dormant period, then this procedure is carried out in such a way that a large lump remains with the root system. In this case, overwintering of transplanted rather mature plants will be relatively painless.

After acquisition, young seedlings with a bare root system (but already dormant) are added dropwise, but they try to observe all precautions for their successful wintering. A well-developed seedling has a distinct central conductor; it has 3-4 lateral skeletal branches (up to 60-70 cm long), a normal root system (at least 40 cm), without mechanical damage, sagging and outgrowths on the root collar. It is believed that the height of a one-year-old seedling should be about 1-1.2 m, a two-year old - 1.4-1.5 m.

In October, when the winter cold has not yet completely shackled the ground, you can try to straighten a tree that bent heavily during the spring-summer season, if there is no way to plant a new seedling instead. Indeed, over time, the tilt of the tree will become greater, as a result of which it can fall under the weight of fruits or from a strong wind. More often, this situation with trees occurs due to improper planting, when a young plant cannot be installed strictly vertically, or such a tilt of it occurs imperceptibly as a result of several waterings. Perhaps a later formation of a similar slope under the weight of the fruit, or it may also happen because of strong winds. According to a number of gardeners, this phenomenon sometimes happens due to root damage by mice and an abundance of mole passages.

In winter, the severity of heavy wet snow falling on a rickety plant can aggravate its slope. It increases every year. A significant danger of a serious slope for a fruit tree lies in the fact that in such a plant the roots from the opposite side are turned outward, as a result of which they can dry out and freeze even in November in the absence of snow or with a slight frost (-8 … -10 ° С). Recall that straightening the tree is recommended in late autumn, when the foliage completely flies around. To put the tilted tree in its normal position, gardeners recommend digging a groove for the inverted part of the roots (digging the ground under it).

To facilitate this procedure, the top layer of soil around the plant is removed (try not to damage the root system). Using thick ropes and stakes, the tree is straightened, trying not to injure the stems. This work is greatly facilitated if a high-quality watering of the soil layer in the area of ​​\ u200b / u200bthe root system is carried out in advance, which makes it possible to soften the earth.

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Towards the end of October, trees begin to move into a state of seasonal dormancy - this is the time for the introduction of the annual rate of organic matter and phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers, as well as a third of the annual rate of mineral nitrogen fertilization. The specified fertilizers are embedded to the full depth of the arable layer: this can be done in holes - "wells" (to a depth of 35-40 cm) under the ends of the branches. After fertilization, a continuous digging of the soil is carried out, giving preference to a pitchfork over a shovel.

For a long winter period before the beginning of the next growing season, mineralization of the introduced organic matter will gradually occur in the soil under the influence of microflora and natural decomposition under the snow during the winter period and until the beginning of the next growing season, as a result of which the root system of plants will receive easily digestible forms of nutrients. After the main soil cultivation, experts advise to start water-charging irrigation. With good September weather and with the hope of a favorable October, some gardeners reach the half of this month for harvesting their vegetable crops. But from the second half of October, severe frosts (almost frosts) may begin. Therefore, before the onset of severe cold weather, you should not delay harvesting cabbage and root crops.

Until mid-October, horseradish rhizomes are dug, while paying attention to the condition of its leaves. Their lower tiers are beginning to die off - it's time to hurry up with cleaning. Since horseradish rhizomes are located deep in the soil, it is better to undermine them from a depth of 35-45 cm using a pitchfork. The soil is shaken off the root system of the dug horseradish, the leaves are cut off and sorted by thickness: large ones are sent for storage, small ones are sent to the nearest sale. Rhizomes (as thick as a pencil) are cut into cuttings (15-20 cm) and planted.

Some gardeners use the bactericidal properties of horseradish to preserve the harvest of vegetables and green crops, placing it, for example, together with the fruits of cucumber and tomato. For this purpose, 200-250 g of grated horseradish is placed on the bottom of a three-liter glass jar, on the surface of which a circle cut from thin polystyrene is placed (somewhat smaller than the bottom of the container). The fruits of these vegetables are tightly placed on this circle, then the jar is closed with a plastic lid and stored in the refrigerator (the fruits are stored for at least a month).

To extend the freshness and quality of greens - spinach, lettuce, dill, parsley, celery, parsnips, etc.) - they are placed in a cool place immediately after cutting. If there is no such cold place and there is no time to process the greens, they are temporarily covered with a damp cloth (maybe for several hours). After the bulkhead, the greens are kept in cold water for 30-40 minutes (after soaking, soil particles settle to the bottom of the container) and washed thoroughly (2-3 times). After a short drying, the spicy products are wrapped in a damp cloth and kept in the refrigerator (0 … + 2 ° С) in a plastic bag (with holes if the greens are damp) or in a glass dish under a plastic lid (the greens are stored for up to 10 days). Itself had to quite successfully save up to 10-12 days on the lower shelf of the refrigerator the fruits of cucumbers more than once,wrapped in a damp cloth and then placed in a plastic bag.

In mid-October, harvesting of chicory lettuce plants begins: the leaves with petioles (3-4 cm) are cut, sorted and stored at room temperature for up to four weeks. The plants themselves can be transplanted into containers (pots or buckets) for home distillation of herbs. They also grow parsley and celery at home. The excavated material is planted in containers with soil and the greens are driven out until late spring.

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