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Video: How To Properly Prepare For Planting And Plant Apple And Pear Trees - 3
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Some gardeners believe that it is enough to spread weakly decomposed (straw) manure or unripe compost in the form of a mulch layer after planting only along the tree-trunk circle of trees, and not add organic matter to the planting pit. They prefer to place the mineral water on the bottom of the pit, mixing these fertilizers with a small amount of soil. In my opinion, this technique is unlikely to be the best option for the further development of the plant. This is understandable if the gardener has to plant several dozen trees at once. Then he may not have enough high-quality organic matter for all planting pits. In addition, its quality must be taken into account.
If organic fertilizers turn out to be of a low degree of decomposition, then, falling to the bottom of the planting pit with a lack of oxygen in the air, they will decompose weakly and slowly, releasing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, which have a bad effect on the survival rate and vital activity of plant roots. It is also known that pure nitrogen can negatively affect the plant during the initial period of the seedling rooting.
It is preferable, of course, to mix well-decomposed organic matter very thoroughly with the soil intended for backfilling the planting pit. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers (nitrophoska, nitroammophoska, ammophos, potassium nitrate - 0.1-0.2 kg) should still be applied (in limited quantities) during planting, thoroughly mixing them with the entire volume of the planned planting land. And it is better to immediately try to provide the seedling with everything necessary.- immediately prepare the entire required volume of soil, including high-quality organic matter well mixed with it and a set of mineral fertilizers. According to experts, when filling a planting pit with dimensions of 1x0.6x0.6 m, the doses of basic fertilizers are: organic - 30-35 kg, granular superphosphate - 1 kg (or double superphosphate - 0.5 kg), potassium sulfate - 0.13 kg, wood ash - 1 kg. I repeat once again: it is important to mix the fertilizers thoroughly with the planting soil.… After all, how you prepare a nutritious soil mixture in a planting pit, this will be the optimal vital activity of both the root system and the tree itself in the first years of its growth, which will subsequently affect its fruiting and life expectancy. If the gardener properly refills the planting hole with organic matter and mineral water, then this supply will be enough for the plant for 3-4 years.
Sometimes some gardeners prepare a planting pit using a planting board (1.5-2 m long, 0.1-0.12 m wide) with one cutout in the middle and two at the ends. Before digging a hole, the plank is placed so that the stake that marks the tree's planting site fits exactly into the middle cut. Then two small control pegs are driven into the cutouts at the ends, the board and stake are removed, having previously outlined the circumference of the pit, and then they begin to work. The dug soil from the arable (upper) horizon, the most fertile, is placed on one side of the pit (preferably on a piece of plastic film) and thoroughly mixed with organic matter (greenhouse humus can also be added here) and mineral fertilizers, and from the sub-arable (lower) horizons - along another.
Then a planting board is placed on the finished pit so that the control pegs enter exactly the end cutouts, and a permanent stake is driven in, to which the seedling will then be tied. The stake is placed exactly in the middle cut of the board, indicating the center of the pit. Around the stake (almost to the middle of the upper level, or even 2/3 of the hole), a mound of soil mixed with fertilizers is poured. It is advisable to dig a hole and fill it a few days before planting so that this mound has time to settle.
When planting, the plant is placed on a mound of soil of the planting pit so that the root system is located in its center. Then they carefully cover it with loose sod soil, avoiding voids between the roots. It is better to plant a seedling together. One person holds the plant on the north side of the stake (to protect the seedling from heat and sunburn) by the stem so that the root collar is not covered. From time to time, he shakes the seedling so that the soil adheres better to the roots. The second gardener at this time sprinkles the soil in portions and carefully distributes roots on the mound. He compacts the ground lightly, trying not to cut off or peel the roots. When the pit is completely filled, the soil must be trampled, since the roots that are poorly compressed by soil can dry out and die off. In order to avoid breaking the roots while trampling the soil, the foot is placed with the toe against the trunk stem, first pressing from the toe, and then the pressure is transferred to the heel. This operation is performed very gently so as not to damage the root system of the seedling.
It is important to remember that the root collar must be located 4-6 cm above the edges of the pit, so that after the soil subsides, it is on the same level with it. Long-term practice has shown that both strong deepening (root collar below the soil surface) and high location (root collar above the soil surface) lead to a deterioration in the condition of the seedling. For example, with a low planting, the bark on the tissue of the trunk itself buried in the soil can crack and support, and the roots of the tree will gradually die off. Deep-planted seedlings develop slowly, bear little fruit and age early. When planted high, trees will suffer from drought, as their root system will be located at the upper (drying out) soil level.
When the hole is filled up and the roots are reliably covered with soil, water is poured abundantly (at least 20 liters) around the tree according to the size of the planting hole, regardless of the weather. The main purpose of watering is to ensure good (dense) contact of the soil with the roots. When the water is absorbed into the soil, and it settles somewhat, additional loose earth is poured onto the seedling over the entire surface of the trunk circle.
So that the water does not actively evaporate, the near-trunk circles are loosened after irrigation, and after the final subsidence the soil is mulched with a layer (10-12 cm thick) of peat, straw manure, compost, sawdust, leaves, dry grass or needles. Mulching has a positive effect on the development of young trees: it enhances root growth, protects the topsoil from drying out and the formation of a soil crust, from the appearance of weeds. In dry weather, watering is repeated after a few days. When planting in spring, it is necessary to periodically water the plant, preventing the topsoil from drying out too much.
After watering, the seedling is loosely tied to the stake above the lower branch of the crown so that it does not swing with the wind and settles freely with the ground. It is not recommended to tie the seedling tightly after planting, because after the soil subsides, the roots can be exposed and voids formed under them. 1.5-2 weeks after the soil is compacted, the seedling is finally tied to the stake with twine, carefully twisting it in the form of a figure eight.
At a high level of groundwater (1-1.5 m from the surface), seedlings of fruit trees are planted on earthen hills with a height of 40-50 cm and a radius of 35-40 cm. The diameter of the mound should be expanded every year. At the same time, the planting holes are not dug, but the hills themselves are created from fertile soil, similar to the one that goes into the planting holes. So that this bulk land does not disintegrate and does not depart from the root system of the seedling, it is recommended to limit it on all sides on the sides with boards that will not allow soil erosion both during irrigation and melt water in spring. The rules for planting seedlings in this case are the same as in a regular site.
When planting in autumn, the trunks of young trees should be protected from rodents by tightly tying the trunks with tar paper or thick paper. Lures are effective against mice, which are purchased at retail and placed in burrows or felting pipes. Some gardeners, after tying, spud the seedlings with a wide mound of land (up to 20 cm high). This is important in areas where roots may freeze (for example, in the northeast of the Leningrad region).
Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin