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Agricultural Technology Of Carrots, Varieties And Pests
Agricultural Technology Of Carrots, Varieties And Pests

Video: Agricultural Technology Of Carrots, Varieties And Pests

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More blood from carrots

growing carrots
growing carrots

Carrot Garden Brought

from overseas countries in the 16th century, carrots quickly and firmly entered Russian life: they were grown in gardens, baked carrot pies from them, and carrot stews. Carrots were also respected for their healing properties, which was noted in the popular proverb: "More blood from carrots."

Light, nutritious soils are best suited for growing carrots. This was noticed in the old days: “She loves the sandy land, on which she will be born smoother and tastier, and will not grow so much in the tops; on the black earth, carrots sprout more grass than their root.

Carrots are very demanding for fertilizers and fertilizing. But it should not be fertilized with fresh manure, otherwise the roots will turn out horny, ugly. It is best to sprinkle well-rotted humus on the top layer of the earth before sowing and dig it up slightly.

Across the bed we mark grooves 1.5-2 cm deep with a distance of 15-18 cm between them. The minimum germination temperature for carrot seeds is + 4 … + 5 ° C, so we sow its seeds in early May. We fill the grooves with seeds with fertile chernozem and be sure to slap the ground for better germination.

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growing carrots
growing carrots

Carrot varieties Natalya

We water the rows of crops from a watering can, and to preserve moisture (since carrot seeds germinate for a long time) and accelerate seed germination, cover the beds with a film for about one to two weeks. But care must be taken that on hot days the seedlings that have appeared do not get soaked under the film. After the emergence of seedlings, we cover the plantings with a non-woven covering material to protect them from lice.

In the early stages of growth, carrots have two main enemies: the carrot fly and the flies. The carrot flap is a small insect 1.7-2 mm long, light green in color. Females lay eggs on leaves, attaching them to the edge of the leaf blade, petiole or to the stem. The larvae appear after about 20 days and stick to the leaves. The period of larval development is 30 days.

Only one generation develops per year. Adult leaf flies and their larvae suck the juice from carrot leaves, causing them to curl and oppress plants, especially young ones. The damaged plant lags behind in development and by the fall forms a defective root crop, which, moreover, has a solid consistency.

In the early years, when we just started growing carrots, it happened that up to 80% of its seedlings were destroyed by the leaf beetle. We turned to a specialist for help. As a means of fighting this pest, he advised the use of urine therapy. However, we did not get a strong effect from this remedy. But when they tried to close the shoots with a non-woven covering material that had just appeared on sale - lutrasil, they immediately relieved our carrots of this scourge.

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You can remove the covering material when the plants grow up (reach a height of 8-10 cm), get stronger and become "too tough" for the pest. This technique is good in that it does not require the use of chemical remedies, has a beneficial effect on the microclimate and is really feasible within the framework of the garden plot.

growing carrots
growing carrots

Carrots damaged by a carrot fly

But we have not yet dealt with another pest of carrots - the carrot fly. The carrot fly is a shade and moisture-loving insect, and therefore severely damages carrots in shaded areas located near water bodies. Adult flies fly out in May-June.

When two or three true leaves appear in carrots, fly egg-laying begins (approximately at the end of May), as a rule, on moist soil. The larvae gnaw through young roots and grind holes in root crops, which retards plant growth and often leads to their death. They gradually turn yellow and dry out. Root crops take on an ugly appearance, lose their juiciness, become bitter and woody.

It has been established that the decisive role in the preference or rejection of plants by female carrot flies when laying eggs, and by its larvae when feeding, is played by the ratio of volatile components - essential oils contained in the leaves, and which are attractive for them (attractants) or repulsive (repellents). This ratio determines the resistance of the variety to the carrot fly, but there are very few such varieties, Therefore, when thinning the crops, you should try not to leave a single pulled out plant in the garden. We have not yet found a means of fighting carrot fly.

Although a new, advertised, carrot fly-resistant variety Nantic Resistaflay has appeared. Its plants emit much less essential substances that are attractive to carrot flies, but in joint plantings with other varieties, although to a lesser extent, it is still affected by the pest. Apparently, it should be planted at some distance from other varieties of carrots. The use of a covering material, a change in the place of cultivation does not exclude the penetration of this pest.

The first thinning of carrots can be carried out when 1-2 true leaves appear. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the central root of the remaining plant, so sowing the seeds very close, "in piles" is not worth it. Remove plucked plants from the garden immediately.

Cleaning and storage of root crops

growing carrots
growing carrots

Amsterdam carrots

Carrots are harvested before the onset of autumn frosts, it is frozen already at a temperature of -1 ° C. The tops must be trimmed immediately after digging. Some gardeners cut the tops with part of the carrots, but we don't, and here's why.

The root crop of carrots practically does not have a dormant period, that is, it is always alive, which means it can resist rot and disease. But he is alive as long as he has a rudiment of tops and small roots on the surface, with which the carrots feed. Washed and cut carrots become “dead” and lose their protective properties.

From this feature of carrots to live even in winter, although not to the fullest extent, follows the desired way of storing it - unwashed and in dry sand. Since carrots breathe, they release moisture during storage. And if moisture comes into direct contact with washed root crops and contributes to their decay, then it comes into contact with dirty ones through dry soil or sand, which absorb it.

We store only first-class, undamaged specimens that are dried in partial shade. We store carrots at a temperature of 0 … + 3? С, at + 5? С it begins to germinate.

Carrot varieties

growing carrots
growing carrots

Anastasia carrot

There are now a wide variety of carrot varieties on the market with very attractive names, but often not what you expect behind them. Growing carrots for a long time, we have tried many foreign varieties and hybrids (Canada F1, Berski F1, Jaguar F1, Napoli F1 and others) in search of, first of all, the sweetest in taste.

Most of them turned out to be really beautiful in shape, rich in color, even, fruitful, but inexpressive in taste, with the exception, perhaps, of early varieties. Against their background, two varieties of Dutch selection with Russian names Natalia and Anastasia grow really sweet, fruitful and stand out from the whole variety of existing carrot varieties. But many of the domestic varieties tested by us, unfortunately, are in many ways inferior to the Dutch ones in terms of yield, evenness of root crops and taste.

For example, that Nantes carrot, which I once saw at my grandmother's garden - one to one even (even grown in cramped conditions), rich orange color, with a blunt tip, juicy, deliciously delicate and sweet taste, which gave abundant harvests, has long been no longer found.

Healing properties of carrots

growing carrots
growing carrots

Carrot varieties Nantic Resistaflay

Such a common carrot on our table turns out to be an extraordinary medicinal plant. For medicinal purposes, carrots were used 4 thousand years ago. The healing power of carrots was revealed to man through long-term observations of cattle, which were fed with tops and root crops. Observations have shown that animals are very fond of carrots and are even treated with it.

Carrots are valued most of all as a source of carotene, which is converted into vitamin A under the influence of a liver enzyme. It promotes normal metabolism, physical and mental development of the body, increases resistance to colds, and ensures normal function of the organs of vision. Carrots are useful for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, digestive organs, liver, and kidneys.

Raw carrot juice has always been used for anemia, general loss of strength, for the treatment of vitamin deficiencies. The juice mixed with honey was used for colds and hoarseness. Carrot juice is the richest source of vitamin A and many other vitamins. It contains significant amounts of calcium, magnesium, iron. When consumed, it is useful to dilute carrot juice by a quarter with berry juice or add a slice of lemon to it.

Carotene is absorbed better if the juice is consumed with bread and butter (carotene is converted to vitamin A only in the presence of vegetable fats in food). The juice should be completely cleansed and the fiber completely removed. You should drink carrot juice within half an hour after preparation. Extracts can be rolled in flour and slightly fried in vegetable oil, like a cutlet.

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