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Video: Classification Of Pesticides According To The Degree Of Hazard To The Environment
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Vigilance and caution when applying chemical protection products in their areas
Recently, the media often talk about the ban on the import of certain vegetables and fruits into Russia due to the presence of pesticides in them. In addition, in the old literature on gardening, as well as in popular publications for gardeners, in the articles of the lagging owners of six acres, you may come across recommendations on the use of some outdated plant protection products, previously called pesticides, and now - pesticides.
For example, there were publications in which it was proposed to use DDT, nitrafen, DNOC (dinitroorthocresol), HCCH (hexachloran), chlorophos, herbicide TXA (sodium trichloroacetate), Parisian greenery, drug No. 30 and other drugs in a personal subsidiary farm or in summer cottages, which are currently out of production and banned for use in Russia. Their use leads to long-term negative consequences for the environment. They either persist in the soil for a very long time, or have long-term effects (mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, embryotoxicity, etc.), for example, a drug such as DDT can persist in soil for up to 50 years. Moreover, the legislation provides for criminal liability for the use of prohibited drugs.
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I will also note that only drugs approved for use in personal subsidiary plots can be sold to the population. In general, only drugs included in the "List of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use in the Russian Federation for the current year" can be sold and used on the plots. This guide is sent as an appendix to the journal "Plant Protection and Quarantine". Since this directory is used in organizations related to plant protection, gardeners should ask about dubious drugs from specialists from plant protection stations or teachers of chemical protection, entomology or phytopathology of agricultural universities.
I would also like to note that even the use of permitted plant protection products can have negative consequences for the environment and human health. Comparatively serious health consequences can occur with the use of medium and highly toxic drugs. For example, Decis, Bazudin are highly toxic pesticides, and malofos, copper sulfate, and copper oxychloride are moderately toxic pesticides. Poisoning can occur if the regulations for the use of the drug are not followed (concentration of working fluid, consumption rate, waiting period - the number of days from processing to harvesting, the maximum number of treatments) or safety measures (precautions).
Protection products (pesticides) are subdivided into 4 classes according to the degree of hazard to the environment. Belonging to a particular hazard class is determined by several indicators, incl. by a lethal dose when introduced into the stomach, the ability to accumulate in the body and remain in the soil.
Hazard class 1 includes extremely dangerous drugs. Most of them are already banned for use. These include DDT (prohibited), metabrom (prohibited), metaphos (prohibited), anti-rodent drugs: zoocoumarin, Storm (permitted), Rattidion, Norat (permitted), zinc phosphide preparations and others.
Class 2 includes hazardous (highly toxic) drugs: Decis, Bazudin, Bi-58, the herbicide Atrazine (prohibited in private household plots) and others.
The 3rd hazard class includes moderately hazardous (moderately toxic) drugs: karbofos, copper oxychloride, oxychom, copper sulfate.
Class 4 includes low-hazard drugs: Actellic, Bordeaux mixture, Roundup herbicide, biological products (fungicides: Planriz, Agat-25K trichodermin, pseudobacterin, insecticides: Lepidocid, Bitoxybacillin, Fitoverm).
Now let's dwell on how to protect plants without negative consequences. I will list safe plant protection measures:
- compliance with crop rotation;
- providing the plant with all nutrients, incl. microelements;
- selection of resistant varieties;
- preventive treatments with immunomodulators: immunocytophyte, Novosil, Silk, Zircon, Epin, humates, as well as biopreparations.
- use in conditions of high humidity, as well as at the initial stage of diseases of biological products or folk remedies, for example, herbal infusions with fungicidal (against fungi), insecticidal or repellent (repelling insects) action.
I will give examples of the use of agrotechnical measures and folk remedies
|Harmful objects||Measures and means|
|Diseases:||Folk remedies and biofungicides:|
|Late blight||Planriz, Agat-25K, Fitosporin|
|Gooseberry powdery mildew||Slurry, strained and diluted 3 times|
|Brown spot of tomatoes (cladosporium)||Weak solution of potassium permanganate, pseudobacterin|
|Potato scab and rhizoctoniae, strawberry gray rot||Growing white mustard|
|Pests:||Means, including biological products:|
|Sucking (aphids, thrips, bugs)||Infusion of onion peels (400 g per bucket of water), garlic pulp (200 g per bucket)|
|Onion and carrot flies||Sprinkle with tobacco dust or peat chips|
|Leaf-eating caterpillars||Dandelion infusions (400 g per bucket), tomato tops, pyrethrum|
|Cruciferous fleas||EM-5 * (I know from my own experience)|
* - EM-5 is not sold and does not appear in the "List of pesticides", but it can be prepared from Baikal EM-1.
In conclusion, I want to remind you that they are all safe for nature, and most of them are harmless for humans. I also hope that gardeners have understood that there is an alternative to "chemistry", and fruits and vegetables processed only with infusions or biological products can be considered environmentally friendly, but only on the condition that permitted chemicals have not been used on the site for the previous three years, and prohibited ones - and even more.
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Pesticides are the same medicines, but for protecting plants from diseases, pests, weeds and other harmful objects