Cherry On A Personal Plot
Cherry On A Personal Plot

Video: Cherry On A Personal Plot

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
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cherry
cherry

Stone fruit crops are invariably popular with amateur gardeners in all climatic zones, including in the Northwest. But the most interesting among them is the cherry.

The popularity of this culture is explained by its many advantages: early ripening of fruits (following strawberries), which makes it possible to bridge the gap in obtaining fresh fruit and berry products, high taste and technological qualities of fruits, their dietary and medicinal properties, etc.

The northern border of the area for possible cultivation of cherries in the Non-Black Earth Region runs along the line St. Petersburg - Vologda - Kirov. Cherry has no industrial value here, but amateur gardeners have long been growing it on their plots, as evidenced by the centuries-old experience of cultivating this crop in the Pskov, Novgorod and Leningrad regions. There are known successful experiments in its cultivation in the conditions of the Karelian Isthmus up to the Vyborg - Sosnovo line, where the centers of cherry cultivation have been preserved until now.

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The growth and fruiting of cherries is influenced by a number of factors, the main of which are soil and nutrients, heat, moisture, light.

In the Northwest, cherry grows best on light loamy, well-drained and warmed soils rich in nutrients. Heavy, moist loams, deep sands and peat bogs are undesirable for her. Cherry does not like acidic soils, the reaction of the soil solution is most favorable for it, close to neutral (pH 6-7).

The soil should be moderately moist. The need for moisture is especially evident in the spring and early summer periods, when flowering, active growth of leaves and shoots occurs. Lack of moisture in the soil during the flowering period causes a strong fall of the ovaries. By the middle of summer, moisture consumption decreases, and by autumn it increases again due to the active growth of roots.

Excess moisture is also unacceptable, since when waterlogged, growth stops, roots die off, leaves turn yellow, and the top of the tree crown dries up. Therefore, reclamation work is carried out on waterlogged soils, excess water is removed.

Cherry will give high yields in conditions of sufficient illumination inside the crown, a lack of light contributes to the rapid death of branches, and fruiting is transferred to the periphery of the crown.

The determining factor is the temperature factor. Cherry grows well and bears fruit only at an average daily temperature of + 15 ° C. In winter, it suffers if the air temperature drops below -30 ° C. In many varieties, the aboveground part freezes out. The alternation of thaws with frosts leads to freezing of fruit buds, which do not bloom in spring and fall off.

blooming cherry
blooming cherry

During the period of returnable spring frosts, when plants are preparing for flowering or blooming, flower pistils, blossoming buds and even young ovaries die. All this suggests that warmer, protected areas should be chosen for cherries.

In the backyard garden, a place is allocated for cherries on the southern side of the buildings, near the fences, where a warmer microclimate is created and a lot of snow accumulates. If apple trees grow nearby, then cherries are also placed on the south side so that there is no shading.

Before planting, the soil on the site is preliminarily improved. For this purpose, under the autumn digging on medium-fertile soils, 1 sq. meter: organic fertilizers - 10-15 kg, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, about 100 g each. On acidic soils, liming is carried out separately (300-600 g of lime, depending on the acidity and composition of the soil).

It is better to plant cherries in spring, especially in the North-West, where the danger of freezing of young plants in winter is most likely. The planting technique is the same as that of an apple tree. Pits are dug 40-50 cm deep, 70-80 cm in diameter.The distance between trees in a row is 2 m, between rows - 3 m. 10-15 kg of organic fertilizers are introduced into the planting pits, 150-300 g - phosphoric and 40-80 g potash (depending on the type of fertilizer). Instead of potash, it is good to use ash (500 g).

Seedlings purchased in the fall for spring planting are buried in a trench 30-35 cm deep for the winter. They are laid at an angle of 30-45 degrees, crowns to the south. Roots and bole to lateral branches are covered with earth, tamped tightly and watered. Spruce branches are placed on the crown - in order to avoid damage to the seedlings by mice and in order to protect them from freezing.

It should be borne in mind that most cherry varieties are self-fertile, therefore, for their better pollination, several varieties must be planted on the site.

When growing cherries, the soil in the garden is kept clear of weeds, loose and sufficiently moist. During the growing season, 3-4 loosening is carried out. In the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 15-20 cm, and near the trunk - by 10 cm.

Fertilizers are applied for digging in the trunk circles. Their rate depends on the age and condition of the plants, the content of nutrients in the soil. In the first three to four years after planting, they are limited only to spring feeding with nitrogen fertilizers (20 g of urea per 1 square meter) and subsequent incorporation into the soil. During the period of entry into fruiting per 1 sq. meter annually make: manure or compost - up to 10 kg, urea - 25 g, simple superphosphate - up to 60 g or double - up to 30 g, potassium chloride - up to 20 g or wood ash 200-300 g.

During the period of mass fruiting, the rate of organic fertilizers is increased to 15-20 kg, the rate of mineral fertilizers is the same. As a rule, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring, phosphorus and potash fertilizers - in the fall, organic fertilizers can be applied in spring and autumn. Lime is applied periodically - after 4-5 years or fractionally - after 2-3 years in doses corresponding to the level of soil acidity.

As necessary, liquid feeding is carried out with solutions of slurry or poultry manure. In the first half of summer, foliar top dressing with urea (40 g per 10 l of water) is effective.

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cherries
cherries

One of the most important agricultural practices is the correct systematic pruning. There are pruning of young and fruiting trees and bushy and tree-like cherries. Immediately after planting in young plants, the crown is well laid naturally, therefore, pruning is carried out minimally, selecting the 5-7 strongest skeletal branches directed in different directions by the apple tree type and subordinating them to the central conductor, the top of which should be 15- higher than the ends of the upper branches. 20 cm. The remaining lateral weak branches are cut out so that they do not thicken the crown. First of all, the lower branches are removed, forming a bole with a height of 35-40 cm.

Fruiting cherries, as a rule, are cut much less, more often cutting branches and shortening are used on one of the lateral branches. Avoid causing a large number of wounds on the central conductor and skeletal branches. To do this, part of the branches is not removed to the ring, but is cut to the side branch. If the soil is poorly maintained, heavy pruning will cause gum leakage.

There are some differences in pruning bush cherry and tree cherry. In bush cherries, the crown forms well naturally. When a tree enters fruiting, the purpose of pruning is to lighten the crown. With good growth (30-40 cm), they are limited to thinning. Cut into the ring thickening, going inside the crown, rubbing, intertwining branches.

With a decrease in the length of annual growths to 15-20 cm, exposing and drooping branches, rejuvenating pruning is carried out - the skeletal branches are shortened over the first lateral branching in the growth of last year (weak rejuvenation). When growth decays and branching stops, a strong rejuvenating pruning of branches is applied to the point where the formation of lateral branches has stopped. Strongly thickened trees are not cut immediately, but within two to three years. The height of the bush cherry is limited to 2-2.5 meters.

In a tree cherry, the skeleton of the tree is formed by laying the lower tier of 3-4 branches. Subsequent skeletal branches are left after 20-30 cm. During the fruiting period, with good growth, the intertwining branches are thinned out in the same way as in bush cherry. In addition, both perennial and annual branches are shortened to enhance branching and the formation of strong bouquet branches.

With a decrease in the strength of growth, the beginning of the denudation of the tree, the skeletal branches are shortened by 2-3-year-old wood or even a bouquet twig, which then sprouts into the shoot. When the growth decays and the tree ages, it is greatly shortened - by 4-7-year-old wood. Be sure to cut out all dry and diseased branches. The sections are cleaned with a knife and covered with garden var.

cherries
cherries

In grafted plants, both bushy and tree-like cherries, all formed wild growth is removed.

When caring for trees, in order to prevent freezing of various parts of plants, preventive measures are taken: selection of winter-hardy varieties, application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers at the end of summer, carrying out autumn water-charging irrigation in dry years, watering and spraying the crown of a tree with water during flowering, etc.

To combat sunburn and frost, whitewashing of boles, trunks and thick skeletal branches is carried out in late autumn. It is sometimes repeated in winter or early spring. For whitewashing, 3 kg of freshly slaked lime and 2 kg of clay are diluted in a bucket of water (10 l), a little wood glue or laundry soap is added for better adhesion. It is best to use a special paint available from hardware stores.

A positive result is the pruning of boles and lower skeletal branches with an insulating material that protects them from heating and sharp cooling. Tying with spruce legs is effective, which, moreover, protect the bole from rodents.

The damaged parts of the trunk, trunk and skeletal branches are protected and coated with garden pitch. In some cases (in case of severe damage), the strapping of the smeared parts is carried out. In case of annular damage to the bark of boles, when the tree is doomed to death, inoculation is done with a bridge, placing cuttings around the circumference of the bole, followed by tying the damaged area with plastic wrap.

Compliance with all of the above measures will allow you to get high yields of this valuable fruit crop.

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