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Video: About The Beneficial Properties Of Blueberries And Their Use In The Household
Blueberries are a wonderful gift of nature
In nature, two types of blueberries are known - ordinary and Caucasian. It is a very common low deciduous shrub of the cowberry family. Blueberries grow on unknown soils, from highlands to taiga and tundra.
Common blueberry is especially abundant in coniferous-broad-leaved, mixed and spruce forests of the European part of our country, in forests that arise after felling and fires, in places of excessive moisture.
In the mountain forests of the Caucasus, at an altitude of 2000 m, Caucasian blueberries grow - a tall shrub or tree up to 2-3 m high. It has large ovoid-oblong finely toothed leaves. The flowers of the shrub are whitish-reddish, bell-shaped and cylindrical. The berries are similar to the common blueberries. The berries are edible, and the leaves are used as a surrogate for tea.
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Common blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) has its own names in different regions: bilberry, blackberry, blackberry, room. It has a horizontal rhizome and strong sharp-ribbed shoots 20-40 cm high.
Leaves are light green, ovate, pointed at the ends, finely serrate at the edges, falling for the winter. They are concentrated at the ends of the twigs. The flowers are bisexual, small, greenish-pinkish-white, solitary, drooping on meek pedicels in the leaf axils. Corolla is jugular-spherical, 3-4 mm in diameter, 4-5 toothed. Blueberries bloom in the North-West in late May - June for about 15 days. The berries ripen in July-August. They are spherical, juicy, black with a bluish bloom with dark red flesh.
Blueberry is a good honey plant, rich in nectar and gives aromatic reddish honey.
The berries are harvested when they are fully ripe. Although the berry picking season lasts almost two months, there are still quite a few of them on the bushes. They can be harvested before the onset of frost. The palatability increases towards the end of the harvesting season. The berries become juicy, sweet, with a peculiar aroma.
Blueberries are delicious and healthy. Blueberry bushes bear fruit from 4 to 5 years.
As a medicinal plant, blueberries are mentioned in medieval herbalists. In medicine, berries and leaves of both types of blueberries are used. For its medicinal benefits, blueberries are among the leaders.
Blueberries contain sugars, organic acids (malic and citric), tannins, pectin and dyes, as well as a whole range of vitamins. Blueberries have long enjoyed a good reputation among the people. Fresh berries and dried decoction are used to treat many gastrointestinal diseases, and are used as a means of improving vision and relieving eye fatigue.
Blueberries have long been used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic agent. Medical research has proven the effectiveness of blueberries in inflammatory diseases of the mouth and throat. Bilberry bioflavonoids have a healing, anti-edematous, vaso-strengthening effect, and prevent the formation of blood clots. Blueberries help with metabolic disorders.
In diabetes, blueberry leaf tea is recommended to lower blood sugar. Dry blueberry leaves are poured with boiling water (a tablespoon of dry crushed leaves in a glass of boiling water). After cooling down, filter and drink for diabetes mellitus, as well as for colitis and inflammation of the bladder (cystitis). The leaves are most rich in valuable flavonoid during the flowering period of blueberries.
Blueberries are an indispensable ingredient in the astronauts' menu. Berries are eaten fresh, jelly, juices, syrups, compotes, extracts, tinctures, wines, soft drinks, teas are prepared. Blueberries are widely used in the confectionery industry, where they make a delicious dessert for both sick and healthy people. Fresh berries are an effective treatment for gout and hemorrhoids. They are used in the treatment of a number of skin diseases and burns.
Blueberry leaves are antidiabetic due to their plant insulin - myrtillin, which has the ability to lower blood sugar.
Blueberries are very sensitive to spring and early summer frosts, especially if they coincide with the flowering period. In this case, the yield is seriously reduced. Harvested quite ripe, undamaged and not decayed berries. They are harvested in dry weather, preferably in the morning, after the dew has melted or at the end of the day.
It happens that blueberries are confused with their closest relative blueberries, although it is not so difficult to distinguish them: the pulp of ripe blueberries is dark red, and blueberries, even the ripe ones, are light pink, the juice does not get dirty. More than twenty species of blueberry are known.
I will briefly dwell on the description of blueberry species, since very detailed information with descriptions of varieties, agricultural techniques and introduction on private plots was published in the Flora Price magazine (No. 1, 2 and 3, 2005; author I. Barylnik).
A plant grows in our forests and swamps that resembles blueberries, but slightly higher and its berries are larger. These are blueberries (Vaccinium uliginosum L.). It has local names: cabbage roll, gonobel, gonobob, titmouse, drunkard, vodnyanka, fool, hemlock, blue grapes.
It is a berry-branched shrub from 0.5 to 1.4 m in height. The branches are round. The leaves are dense, ovate, gray-green below, falling for the winter. The flowers are small, white or white-pink, arranged one or two at a time. Fruits are spherical or oval berries, bluish-blue, greenish inside, have a pleasant sweet-sour taste or insipid. Blueberries bloom in June. The berries ripen in July. It is a good honey plant.
Distribution area - wetlands, as well as coniferous, spruce and birch forests. Blueberries often grow in elevated areas of peat bogs, in the tundra.
In the Far East there is Amur blueberry with a black round berry. Blueberries often grow alongside Marsh Ledum, with an intoxicating, heady aroma. This circumstance served as the basis for the name of the blueberry "drunkard", "stupid".
Blueberries are similar in composition to blueberries. They contain sugars, malic and citric acids, tannins, iron salts, vitamin C. They consume fresh and processed blueberries. In the north, fresh berries are used as an antiscorbutic agent, they normalize the metabolism of fats and cholesterol. Blueberries make a great wine.
According to experts, it is impossible to grow, let alone multiply, blueberries in the Leningrad Region because of the complexity of this process. In Russia, almost no nursery grows tall blueberries for the same reason.
Using blueberries at home
Blueberries are stored as a semi-finished product, which is used all winter for jelly, compotes, pies, in 2-3 liter glass jars, hermetically sealed with lids.
Preparation of a semi-finished blueberry product
1 glass of freshly squeezed blueberry juice is poured into an enamel pot. Pour 3 kg of peeled and washed blueberries. The pan is put on fire, brought to a boil, boiled for 2-3 minutes and poured into sterile hot jars. Jars are filled to the brim, rolled up with boiled lids. Turn upside down and leave to cool.
Method of making juice from blueberries
Peeled, washed berries are poured into a bowl, which is put on fire. Boil without water and crush the berries well. The softened mass is placed in a linen bag or in a bag of several layers of nylon fabric. Let the juice drain. There are many ways to squeeze juice. Sugar syrup is mixed with juice, boiled and poured hot into hot bottles. The bottles are hermetically sealed. For 1 kg of blueberries, take 0.5 cups of granulated sugar.
Another method of juicing The
berries are ground in a saucepan. Mixed with the same amount of sugar and put in a refrigerator or cellar for two days. The mass is squeezed out, the juice is boiled for 30 minutes and poured into bottles.
Drying of blueberries
After preliminary drying of blueberries in a dryer or in the open air, the berries are dried on mats or trays in the oven at a temperature of 35-40 ° С. The berries are laid out in a layer of 1.5-2 cm.
Dry blueberries are used in medicine as a means of strengthening the stomach. In the food industry - as a high-quality dye for wines, marmalade, fillings.
Blueberry marmalade Rub the
berries through a sieve. 600 g of sugar is added to one kilogram of berries and the mixture is boiled until the thick mass lags behind the bottom of the pan. While hot, the marmalade is poured onto a saucer soaked in cold water. As soon as the marmalade has cooled, it is cut into pieces and put in jars. You can sprinkle with icing sugar to keep the pieces from sticking together.
juice Mash blueberries, squeeze the juice, pour into a glass jar, cover and put in a cool place. Pour the pomace with hot water, boil for 10-12 minutes, strain. Mix the broth with juice and add sugar syrup. Serve chilled. For 1 glass of blueberries, 0.5 cups of granulated sugar, 1 liter of water.
Drink with cheese
Mix 50 g of grated cheese, 30 g of blueberry juice, 100 g of milk in a mixer for 1 minute.
Blueberry and gooseberry drink
Crush the clean gooseberries, sprinkle with sugar and pour over hot water. Rub through a sieve with blueberries and mix with skim cream. Season to taste with sugar and refrigerate. 400 g blueberries, 200 g gooseberries, 1 glass of cream, 5-6 tablespoons of granulated sugar, 1 glass of water.
Blueberry and mint
drink Pour mint with boiling water, cover and let stand. Boil water with sugar, cool. Rub the blueberries through a sieve or cheesecloth. Stir with syrup and strained mint infusion. Refrigerate. Serve in glasses with a piece of ice in each.
Put canned fruits (50 g) in a glass. Add ice cream (50 g), raspberry syrup (10 g) and blueberry juice (30 g).
Milk, cream and blueberry drink
Boil milk, cool strongly. Put the berries in a mixer, add milk and granulated sugar. Turn on the mixer for 20-30 seconds. Pour the drink into glasses, put a piece of ice in each. 750 g blueberries, 2.5 glasses of milk, 3 tablespoons of granulated sugar.