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Video: Groups And Varieties Of Irises
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Features and preferences of iris groups
Among all the variety of perennial flower crops, irises rightfully occupy one of the leading places. There are 300 types of irises in the world. Plants of this family can be found all over the world. From early spring to mid-autumn, this unusual flower delights the eye.
Probably, it is difficult to find a country in the world in which there would be no legends and traditions associated with this flower. Iris translated from ancient Greek means "rainbow". In ancient Egypt, iris was cultivated in the 15th century BC. e., there he was considered a symbol of eloquence.
It is from Egypt that this flower comes to Spain, France, England and Russia. In Russia, he was called the affectionate name of the kasatik. The traditional symbol of the boys' holiday celebrated annually in Japan (May 5) is the image of iris, because in the Japanese language the name of this flower and the concept of "warrior spirit" are denoted by the same hieroglyphs. The Italian city of Florence got its name from the irises that grow in abundance in its vicinity, which is reflected in the coat of arms of this city.
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The color of iris flowers is like a multi-colored rainbow: white and azure, yellow and purple, pale pink and purple-cherry. The leaves of irises are like a sword: pointed at the top, flat at the base; retaining their green color until late autumn. The ability of irises to persist in a bouquet for a long time, gradually opening bud by bud, makes them one of the most valuable plants.
In nature, you can find dwarf species, no more than 5 cm in height, blooming in early spring along with primroses, and truly summer giants, up to one and a half meters high. One of the most unpretentious species - marsh iris - can be found in summer along the banks of ponds, channels and ditches. Not only flowers, but also roots, possessing an unusual aroma, have found use in the perfumery industry for the manufacture of perfumes, and in the food industry - for flavoring liqueurs, wines and confectionery. In some countries mats, ropes, and brushes are made from iris leaves.
Garden irises, according to a simplified classification proposed by the famous breeder G. I. Rodionenko, are divided into ten groups. Among amateur flower growers, four groups of irises can most often be found in their personal plots: bearded, Siberian, spuria and Japanese.
Bearded irises are the most extensive group in terms of the number of varieties, in the creation of which leafless Iris and German Iris participated. Now we will give a brief description of each species.
German Iris (Iris germanica)
Rhizomes are 2-3 cm thick. Leaves are basal, broadly obvious, glaucous, 35–40 cm long, 2.5–3 cm wide. Peduncle with two branches branching off at an acute angle, on the tops of which two flowers develop. The flowers are large, 5–7 cm in diameter, bluish-purple, with a yellowish-blue “beard” with a strong aroma. Blooms in late spring - early summer. The cultural appearance has been known since the middle of the 16th century.
Aphrodisiac - light apricot flowers, with a pearl spot in the center, with a light aroma, 90 cm
high. Polished Manners - dark purple flowers, closer to the center, the color is lighter, with a slight sweet aroma, 90 cm
high. Mariposa Skies - pale blue flowers with deep blue veins on the lower blue petals, slightly corrugated, with a sweet aroma, 75–85 cm high, re-blooming.
Aggressively Forward - vibrant flowers with ruffled golden standards and pastel yellow fouls with purple speck and border. With a musky scent, 90 cm high.
Role Model - reddish brick color with corrugated edges, 90 cm high.
Well Endowed- golden yellow flowers with white spots on the fouls, 95 cm high, re-blooming.
Mother Earth - flowers with creamy standards and lavender fouls, lighter at the beard, 90 cm high, re-blooming.
Iris hybrid or garden (Iris hibrida)
By height, this group of irises is divided into undersized (25–37 cm), medium (37–70 cm) and tall (over 70 cm). The leaves of irises are xiphoid or lily, erect. Flowers are solitary or in inflorescences, often resembling orchid flowers. Some varieties have a pleasant smell. The rhizome is almost terrestrial.
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Leafless iris (Iris aphylla)
The plant is up to 50 cm high. The leaves are xiphoid, up to 45 cm long, die off by winter, in spring they appear after peduncles, on which there are 3-5 bright purple flowers, sometimes blooms again in summer.
The plant is up to 15 cm high. The leaves are narrow-linear, up to 10 cm long, the peduncle size is 3-5 cm, with one yellow or blue-violet flower, without aroma.
Siberian irises combine varieties and hybrids of Siberian Iris, Oriental Iris and Bristle Iris. They are highly winter-hardy, so they do not require winter shelter. They are unpretentious in cultivation: they can grow in damp, but not swampy, places, are not affected by bacteriosis, rarely get sick with rust. Unlike bearded irises, the rhizomes of Siberian irises must be planted to a depth of 5–10 cm.
Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica)
The rhizome is thin, highly branching, forms dense tussocks, covered with brown fibers. The roots go deep into the soil. Leaves are linear, long-pointed, 50–80 cm long, 0.6–0.8 cm wide. Peduncle 60–100 cm high, hollow, two-, three-flowered. The flowers are light or dark purple, sometimes white with a slight aroma. It usually blooms in late spring - early summer. In nature, it can be found in Western and Central Siberia, in the European part of Russia it grows from the taiga to the steppe zone.
Iris bristle (Iris setosa)
Rhizomes of short branches tightly pressed against each other, entangled with brown fibers. Leaves are xiphoid, 40-50 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide. Peduncle 50-80 cm high, dense inside, branched, bearing 2-3 flowers on each branch. The flowers are reddish purple. The outer perianth lobes are large, 3-4 cm in diameter, the inner ones are underdeveloped, bristly. Blooms in late summer - early autumn. The homeland of this species is Eastern Siberia, Primorye, the Kuril Islands, Northeast China, Japan and Alaska.
Iris blood red or oriental (Iris orientalis)
The plant is up to 1 m high, the leaves are linear, up to 75 cm long, forming a small compact bush. The flowers are violet-blue, less often white, in the amount of 4-5 pieces per peduncle.
Iris calamus or yellow (marsh iris) (Iris pseudacorus)
Rhizome is creeping, slightly branched. Basal leaves are green, broadly linear, up to 120 cm long. Peduncle 70–90 cm high, rarely 120 cm, leafy, dense, slightly flattened, with 3–4 lateral branches, bearing two or three flowers. The flowers are large, golden yellow. Blooms in the first half of summer. Places of natural growth - from the forest zone of Europe to the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, South Siberia, Asia Minor, North Africa. This is the only species that can be planted near water bodies, rivers, ponds. Soils for planting them should be sandy-clayey, moist. Planting depth - up to 30 cm, while they can withstand prolonged spring flooding.
The name of this group can be translated as "false iris" or "doubtful iris". In nature, wild irises grow on saline clay soils, which are usually flooded by melt or rainwater in spring, and in summer, during a drought, turn into a clay monolith. This feature allows them to grow in the most difficult conditions, on problem soils. The spuria iris flower is closest in shape to the type of reticulated iris, but in contrast to it, several flowers on tall stems are usually formed on the peduncle, giving powerful thickets. This group includes species such as Iris salt-loving and Iris musulmanica.
Salt-loving Iris (Iris halophila)
The area of this species is the steppes of Mongolia and Western Siberia, Ukraine, Moldova and Romania. The color of the flowers of this species is all shades of yellow: from light cream to sulfur-yellow. Flowering time is the second and third decade of June. Plant height 0.5–0.8 m.
Muslim Iris (Iris musulmanica)
In this group, the most widespread late flowering varieties obtained by hybridization: Farolito and Golden Lady.
Farolito - flowers with an intense purple top, the outer tepals are decorated with a delicate pattern of purple veins on a white background, with a contrasting bright yellow stroke in the middle.
Golden Lady - bright yellow flowers. As the flower unfolds, the color becomes more intense.
Lankaran, Phrygia and Butterfly are also representatives of this group.
Japanese irises combine Kempfer's iris varieties into their group.
Iris Kempferi (Iris kaempferi). Perennial with annual flowering and perennial shortened vegetative shoots, forming a rhizome.
Rhizome with short branches, forming a dense turf, in brown fibers. The roots are fibrous. Leaves are narrowly obvious, 50–70 cm long, 1–1.8 cm wide, pale green, reddish-purple at the base by the end of the growing season, with a pronounced midrib. Peduncle 70-80 cm high, rarely 120 cm. Flowers are large, dark purple-violet, without aroma. Blooms in the first half of summer.
It occurs naturally in the Primorsky Territory, on the Kuril Islands, in China and Japan. The disadvantage of this species is its weak winter hardiness. The plant requires winter shelter with spruce branches. Modern varieties are divided into four groups by flower size: small, medium, large and very large. By the shape of the flower, simple, double, terry are distinguished. By stem height - very short, short, medium and high. By flowering time - very early, early, medium-flowering, late and very late.
In the last decade, a group of bulbous irises (Iris Hollandica) has become widespread in the Russian market, which is most often used for decorating borders, on alpine hills and as a forcing crop. This group includes the species Iris reticulata, on the basis of which the largest number of modern varieties have been created.
Iris mesh (Iris reticulate). Bulbous perennial. The bulb is elongated-ovate or elongated-spherical, 1.5 cm in diameter. The outer scales are dry, reticulate. Leaves are only basal (there are 2-4 of them), in cross section they are tetrahedral, narrow, below with a membranous sheath, like peduncles, lengthening by the time of seed ripening. Peduncles are short, up to 7 cm high. The flowers are solitary, 5–6 cm in diameter, regular, six-membered, bright or pale red or purple, rarely white.
Homeland - the south and east of Transcaucasia, northwest of Iran and northeast of Turkey. In Russia, this iris has been introduced into cultivation since 1865 by the Petersburg Botanical Garden. The appearance of these irises, some of the most attractive, is a graceful flower that hovers like a tropical butterfly above the ground. The two main disadvantages of this species are as follows: the plant does not tolerate waterlogging, and it also has a relatively weak winter hardiness.
The best soils for growing are light loams with low groundwater levels. To increase winter hardiness, plants are covered with spruce branches for the winter. The advantage is early spring flowering, which coincides with the flowering of most bulbous crops such as muscari, hyacinths, tulips and early onions. Here are the most famous and beautiful varieties of net iris:
Iris Rosario is a 45–50 cm tall plant with pink flowers with a subtle purple tint.
Iris Dynamic Duo is a 50–55 cm tall plant, a mixture of three varieties Tall Dutch, Sky Wings, Discovery.
Mystic Beauty is a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with dark blue standards, violet-blue fouls with a yellow center.
Bronze Beauty is a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, the color is “toffee” (reddish-yellow).
Silver Beauty is a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with silver-blue standards, creamy white fouls with a lemon-yellow center.
Oriental Beauty is a plant with a height of 50–55 cm, a flower with lavender standards and golden yellow fouls.
The most common group is the bearded irises. For the cultivation of this culture, a sunny area with permeable soil (sandy loam, light loam) is chosen.
If there are heavy clay soils in the garden, then sand is also added with humus (up to 4 kg per m2) during planting. Plants are usually transplanted in spring or in the second half of summer (until mid-September), when the plants have faded. The optimum soil temperature for planting is from 10 to 20 degrees Celsius.
Read the next part. Features of growing irises on personal plots →
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