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2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:34
Read the previous part. ← Fertilizer system as a basic element of suburban farming
Basic elements of suburban farming: fertilization system
Doses and ratios of individual types of fertilizers, methods of their application for individual crops are the main content of the fertilizer system in crop rotation.
When compiling a system for applying fertilizers for individual crop rotation fields, a soil map, cartograms of acidity and the content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium are used. The yield of the previous crop, the aftereffect of fertilizers, the plowing time, the degree of weed infestation and other conditions that determine the fertility of the soil and the cultivation of the field are taken into account.
When choosing the forms of fertilizers, it is also necessary to take into account the attitude of various plants to the reaction of the environment, and the nature of the development of the root system, the depth of penetration of the roots and their ability to absorb nutrients from the soil and from fertilizers.
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To take into account all factors of plant growth and development, it is necessary to take into account the requirements of individual crops to the forms of fertilizers. To do this, we will again call the magic "fish" to tell about the peculiarities of nutrition and fertilization of certain vegetable crops.
A properly designed fertilization system must necessarily take into account the nutritional and fertilizing characteristics of individual vegetable crops, for example, cabbage, carrots, beets or potatoes. Let's consider these features.
It is one of the main vegetable crops. In the soddy-podzolic zone, it ranks first in terms of area occupied. For the formation of 1 kg of heads of cabbage with a normal ratio of the marketable and non-marketable parts of the crop, cabbage consumes on average 4 g of nitrogen, 1.5 g of P 2 O 5 and 5 g of K 2 O.
The growth of the cabbage crop occurs throughout the growing season, right up to harvest. The periods of absorption of nutrients are most compressed in cabbage of early varieties and more extended in cabbage of later varieties. Therefore, one or two additional fertilizing can be planned for late cabbage in the period before the rows close. However, the maximum absorption of nutrients by cabbage occurs during the period of intensive increase in the total mass of the crop.
Due to the increased need for nutrients and their intensive assimilation in a relatively short time during the formation of the head of cabbage, especially in early ripening and mid-ripening varieties, cabbage is a crop that is demanding on soil fertility and fertilization. It grows well in slightly acidic soils. On acidic soils, cabbage reacts positively to liming. Liming the soil helps to get rid of a number of diseases.
Cabbage is a magnesium-loving culture, so it is better to add dolomite flour containing magnesium under it; from micronutrients, it is especially responsive to the introduction of molybdenum, cobalt and boric fertilizers. Cabbage responds well to various organic fertilizers. With an increase in the dose of manure, the yield of cabbage increases and its ripening accelerates, which is of great importance for obtaining early marketable products.
On most soils, and especially on podzolic soils, cabbage primarily needs nitrogen fertilizers. On peat and floodplain soils, which are characterized by a low potassium content, high yield increases are obtained from potash fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers increase the yield no less than manure or other organic fertilizers. When applying manure alone, cabbage lacks, oddly enough, primarily nitrogen.
It consumes about three parts of potassium and three parts of nitrogen for one part of phosphorus, whereas from manure in the year of its incorporation, plants absorb three parts of potassium and only one part of nitrogen for one part of phosphorus. Therefore, when applying manure under cabbage, nitrogen fertilizers should be added first. Only in the case of growing this crop on floodplains and low-lying soils, on well-decomposed peatlands, rich in nitrogen available to plants, the need to add nitrogen fertilizers to manure is reduced, but not excluded. The combination of the main fertilizer with the local pre-sowing fertilizer during planting increases the yield of early production, especially in early ripening cabbage varieties.
Features of nutrition and fertilization of potatoes
One kilogram of potatoes per season takes out 6 g of nitrogen, 2 g of phosphorus and 9 g of potassium. Nutrients are absorbed by potatoes throughout the growing season. To grow powerful tops in the period from germination to tuberization, an intensive nitrogen nutrition of potatoes is required. However, excessive, especially one-sided nitrogen supply causes strong tops growth and delays the tuberization process.
Potassium nutrition of potatoes is of great importance during the formation of tops, formation and growth of tubers. If the level of potassium nutrition before budding was sufficiently high, then a decrease in the amount of potassium in the future may not have a significant effect on the yield of tubers, since when the tops, rich in potassium, age, the latter moves to the tubers, providing the need for this nutrient.
Potatoes respond well to the introduction of manure, which is explained by the peculiarities of the development of this culture. With the growth of potatoes, the need for nitrogen and ash elements gradually increases, which, during the decomposition of manure, enter the plants.
A higher increase in potato yield is obtained with the combined application of manure and mineral fertilizers. The optimal dose of mineral fertilizers is less when applied with manure prepared on straw or peat bedding, as well as in the case of a good soil supply with mobile forms of nutrients. Doses of mineral nitrogen fertilizers against the background of manure should be higher for early potato varieties. These varieties use less nutrients of manure, which are converted into assimilable compounds only after a certain time, necessary for the processes of its decomposition, than mid- and late-ripening varieties of potatoes.
Various forms of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers are suitable for potatoes, but this crop gives preference to fertilizers containing sulfur, such as ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate or potassium magnesium sulfate, which also contains magnesium. Against the background of potassium chloride, it is advisable to apply magnesium fertilizers on their own. Potatoes require the introduction of copper, cobalt, molybdenum and boric fertilizers, while the quality of the product is excellent.
When planting potatoes, instead of superphosphate, it is better to add nitrophosphate 10 g / m2, since potato tubers are poor in nitrogen, and potatoes, along with phosphorus, need additional nitrogen nutrition for germination of tubers.
If fertilizing is planned, then with each of them, more than 15 g and less than 6-7 g of ammonium nitrate should not be applied, and no more than 10 g of nitrate per 1 m3 should be added to early feeding. The number of dressings depends on the annual rates of mineral fertilizers. When planning a higher yield, higher annual fertilizer rates are used, so the amount of fertilizing can also be increased.
Nutrition and fertilization of beetroot
Beetroot per 1 kg of root crops and the corresponding amount of tops consumes 3 g of nitrogen, 1.2 g of P 2 O 5 and 4.5 g of K 2 O. Beets are sensitive to acidic soil reactions. The optimal reaction for her is close to neutral. Therefore, it is advisable to use dolomite flour and well-rotted manure directly under the beets.
The influence of mineral fertilizers on the yield of this crop is higher than that of manure, since they are more available for feeding beets. Therefore, beets are usually placed in a crop rotation in the second or third year after the incorporation of manure, using only mineral fertilizers for it. A high effect is obtained when superphosphate is introduced into the rows when sowing beets.
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Nutrition and fertilization of carrots
Carrots consume slightly less nutrients per crop unit than beets. This is explained in most cases by the fact that beets have a higher ratio of tops to root crops compared to carrots. For the formation of 1 kg of root crops and the corresponding amount of tops, carrots consume 2.5 g of nitrogen, 1 g of P 2 O 5 and 4 g of K 2 O. It is more hardy to soil acidity than beets. The optimum acidity level for her is pH 5.5. At pH below this value, liming also has a positive value for carrots.
The absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by carrots occurs most intensively during the period of maximum growth of the root crop. The accumulation of nitrogen and especially potassium in plants is much faster than phosphorus.
Carrots on manure often give better results than on mineral fertilizers alone, especially if the latter are applied in higher doses. This is explained by its increased sensitivity to excessive concentration of soil solution. Mineral fertilizers applied in moderate doses have a positive effect on the yield of carrots, like manure, especially on soils with a high buffer capacity.
The introduction of slightly rotted straw manure under carrots complicates inter-row cultivation, causes branching of the root crop. It is better to add peat manure or composts under it.
From fertilizers for vegetable crops, it is recommended to apply the following best types and forms of fertilizers: manure or composts, dolomite flour, ammonium nitrate (urea), superphosphate, potassium sulfate (potassium chloride), nitrophoska (azofosku, ammofosku), magnesium sulfate, boric acid, copper sulfate, ammonium molybdate and cobalt sulfate. All new fertilizers, the positive effect of which gardeners want to determine in their garden plot, can be identified only against the background of the considered fertilizer system, against the background of the basic doses and ratios of fertilizers given in the table.
If the new fertilizers in this case show their high positive effect, then only in this case they can successfully replace the recommended forms of fats, but if their positive effect is not revealed, then they have no perspective and are useless for practice.
Read the next part. Tillage systems →
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