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Kohlrabi: Nutritional Value, Seedling And Non-seedling Growing Method
Kohlrabi: Nutritional Value, Seedling And Non-seedling Growing Method

Video: Kohlrabi: Nutritional Value, Seedling And Non-seedling Growing Method

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Video: How to grow kohlrabi from seed 2023, January
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  • Kohlrabi nutritional value
  • Kohlrabi cabbage varieties
  • Agrotechnics kohlrabi
  • Seedling method of growing kohlrabi
  • A seedless way of growing kohlrabi
kohlrabi cabbage
kohlrabi cabbage

Continuing the conversation about the types of cabbage that can be grown in the conditions of the North-West region, we will now dwell on the kohlrabi cabbage, which is not yet very widespread in our country. But this is the fastest ripening cabbage.

She ripens 70-80 days after germination, or 20-30 days earlier than head. Besides being cold-resistant, it is valuable for the northern regions of the country, where in June - early July there is a shortage of fresh vegetables from their backyards.

Kohlrabi cabbage has been known for a very long time. They knew about it several centuries before our era. Kohlrabi was known to the ancient Romans as kaulorapa, which means stem turnip. This is where its modern name comes from. It is most widespread now in Western Europe.

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Kohlrabi nutritional value

kohlrabi cabbage
kohlrabi cabbage

Nutritional value in kohlrabi has a spherical overgrown stem, called a stem-fruit, which forms above the ground. Kohlrabi cabbage has a high dietary value, as well as a pleasant taste. In terms of nutrient content, it surpasses white cabbage. Dry matter accumulates in it up to 10.5%. It has a high sugar content (3-7%), a significant part of which is represented by sucrose, which determines its sweet taste, proteins (1.5-3%), fiber (0.9-1.2%).

In terms of the content of vitamin C, kohlrabi occupies a prominent place among many vegetable crops: in 100 grams of raw matter, it accumulates up to 50-100 mg. This is the same and even slightly more than the fruits of lemon and orange have. That is why kohlrabi cabbage is also called "northern lemon". In the stems are carotenoids (3-9 mg%), vitamins: B1 (thiamine) - 0.02-0.3 mg%, B2 (riboflavin) - 0.05-0.4 mg%, B6, PP (nicotinic acid) - 0.2-0.9 mg%, in terms of which kohlrabi is superior to white cabbage and most other vegetables.

Kohlrabi cabbage is rich in mineral salts. Ash elements contain 0.8-1.2%, incl. potassium salts 387 mg%, calcium 45-60 mg%, magnesium 19-179 mg%, phosphorus 50 mg%, iron 2.2 mg%, sodium - 50 mg%, sulfur - 88 mg%. It has anti-cancer (cancer of the lungs, bladder, prostate and breast, intestines), antiscorbutic, anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, anti-atherosclerotic, antimicrobial, anti-toxic, hematopoietic and restorative effects.

Eating kohlrabi has a beneficial effect on the nervous system, metabolism and functions of the liver, gallbladder and gastrointestinal tract. It is much softer than white cabbage, gently affects the gastrointestinal tract, stimulates appetite, therefore it is better suited for medical nutrition (in boiled form) for chronic gastritis, gallstone disease, gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, it can be used in nutrition weakened patients with infectious diseases, anemia, kidney disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis. Kohlrabi and juice from it are useful for children, since the calcium contained in them is easily absorbed and goes to build teeth and bones. The high content of calcium, phosphorus and protein make this type of cabbage important in the diet of pregnant women.

Kohlrabi seeds are the same in shape, size and color as the seeds of cabbage and other types of cabbage. In terms of shoots, it also does not differ from them, but already the first true kohlrabi leaf has a long petiole, a grayish-green or bluish-purple color and an elongated shape, and its edge is incised in the form of teeth.

Kohlrabi forms a very developed root system. Its taproot is not thick, but long. Numerous densely branched roots extend from it. Usually the root system is located quite densely in the upper soil layer at a depth of 25-30 cm and is evenly distributed in all directions at a distance of about 60 cm. As the plant grows, the roots penetrate deep into the soil. The main root and its branches can reach a depth of 1.5-2.6 m. The total suction surface of the kohlrabi root system surpasses even the root system of cabbage. If the groundwater comes close to the soil surface, the roots do not penetrate deeply.

After the formation of the 7-8th true leaf, the stem grows noticeably thicker. From this moment on, the formation of stems and the growth of leaves go simultaneously. The early varieties of cabbage have a smaller number of leaves and their size than the later ones. Stem fruits can be of various shapes, but round and round-flat ones have higher taste qualities. Outside, the stem is covered with a dense skin of green or purple color.

Inside, it has a dense, fleshy, juicy, sweet white pulp. As it ripens, the lower part of the stem grows first, and then the rest of it. Coarsening is caused by the differentiation in the core of a large number of vessels. An overripe stalk plant, as a rule, has an ugly, elongated shape with swelling in the form of "cones" formed on it. The quality of the crop grows worse with a lack of moisture in the soil, as well as under the influence of high temperatures, when the weather is hot for a long time.

Kohlrabi is an extremely plastic plant; it can grow in various soil and climatic zones, from the far north to the sultry south. This cabbage is a cold-resistant plant. The most favorable temperature is + 15 … + 18 ° С during the day and + 8 … + 10 ° С at night. At a higher temperature, its stems grow faster, at a low temperature (+ 6 … + 10 ° С), early-ripening varieties have flowering plants.

Among cabbage plants, kohlrabi is the most resistant to drought, since it has the ability to extract moisture from the deep horizons of the soil, but it forms a high-quality stem crop only with good moisture supply. It reacts positively to irrigation, especially on peaty and sandy loamy soils prone to drying out. When soil moisture is below 60% of full moisture capacity, cracking of stems is observed in it. Plants are especially demanding on soil moisture in the initial period of growth, when there is an intensive growth of leaves and roots.

Kohlrabi is a light-loving plant. When growing it in the aisles of the garden, when the crowns of the trees create a little shading, the formation of stems is delayed, and the yield decreases. She is a long day plant. It was noticed that under the conditions of a long polar day, there is a more rapid growth of leaves and the formation of a stalk.

Kohlrabi grows well on loose loamy, light loamy, well-warmed soil, rich in organic matter. Each kilogram of kohlrabi cabbage takes out 3.5 g of nitrogen, 3 g of phosphorus, 5.5 g of potassium and 2 g of calcium from the soil with a crop. Of all types of cabbage, it is the most salt-tolerant. The best reaction of the soil solution for the growth of kohlrabi is neutral or even slightly alkaline. However, kohlrabi gives quite satisfactory yields on slightly alkaline soil (pH 5.5).

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Kohlrabi cabbage varieties

The value of kohlrabi lies in the fact that it has predominantly early ripening varieties that can yield a harvest 60-70 days after germination, which is very important for getting early production from the land in early spring. Late varieties of it grow little and are well stored in the autumn-winter period.

Early ripening varieties - Vienna White 1350, Atena, Korist F1, mid-ripening varieties - Eder RZ F1, Cartago F1 and late ripening - Violetta, Gigant, Kossak F1.

Agrotechnics kohlrabi

kohlrabi cabbage
kohlrabi cabbage

Kohlrabi is grown in protected and open ground. In greenhouses and greenhouses, it makes sense to grow only the earliest varieties. Kohlrabi can be successfully grown in the open field as a re-crop after harvesting early green plants - lettuce, spinach, onions on a leaf from a set or selection, radishes, cultivated on well-fertilized soils.

The best precursors for kohlrabi are potatoes, cucumber, tomato, peas, beets, onions. For kohlrabi, organic fertilizers are not applied, but the previous crops are provided with them. Mineral fertilizers are applied immediately before sowing or planting seedlings.

The soil for kohlrabi is prepared in autumn. It is dug to its full depth (25-30 cm). To combat the keel, which infects all cabbage plants (including weeds), lime fertilizers are applied (0.4-0.8 kg of dolomite or ground limestone per 1 m²). The best effect is obtained by using finely ground lime materials. If there is a lack of liming agents, local application in small doses can be used.

When planting seedlings, 5-10 g of dolomite is introduced into each hole, spending 50-100 g per 1 m². Such fertilizer as phosphorite flour not only provides plants with phosphorus, but is also an effective means of combating soil acidity, which has a beneficial effect on the yield … In the spring, as soon as it becomes possible to start the first work on the personal plot, it is necessary to burrow the soil with a rake in 2-3 traces in order to loosen its surface layer and thereby prevent strong evaporation of moisture from it. The soil for kohlrabi must be carefully cut and leveled.

If the soil is heavy, swimming, digging is done, on lighter soils - loosening to a depth of 12-15 cm using a hoe or flat cutter. Good results are obtained by processing the soil by milling with a walk-behind tractor. It is only advisable to loosen rapidly drying soils in the spring, followed by harrowing. Before spring digging or loosening, mineral fertilizers are applied: 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate or urea, 20-30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride. In our northern conditions, sowing or planting seedlings is done on pre-prepared ridges or ridges.

Kohlrabi is grown in two ways: seedling and seedling. Only large, calibrated seeds should be used for sowing. They give amicable, aligned shoots with rapid growth rates. Such seeds provide early maturity and the highest yield of high quality stems.

Seedling method of growing kohlrabi

kohlrabi cabbage
kohlrabi cabbage

Kohlrabi seedlings are grown, like white cabbage, with or without a dive. To prepare seedlings, you can use greenhouses, nurseries or greenhouses.

The abundance of light and fresh outside air always ensures high quality seedlings. It is important to monitor the temperature, not to steam the plants. The air temperature during the day should be at the level of + 12 … + 16 ° С, and at night + 6 … + 8 ° С. Watering seedlings is rarely necessary, but abundant. After each watering, it is necessary to ventilate in order to eliminate excessive air humidity, which, interacting with high temperatures, creates favorable conditions for the development of the black leg disease. During the growing period, seedlings are fed twice.

The first time is 7-10 days after the pick, when the seedlings take root well and get stronger. On one watering can take 10-15 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate, 10-15 g of potassium chloride. Immediately after feeding, the plants are watered with clean water to avoid leaf burns. They feed the second time, 10-12 days after the first feeding. In this case, the dose of fertilizers is doubled.

Before planting, the seedlings are hardened. Kohlrabi seedlings are planted at the age of 3-5 true leaves. For planting, use only healthy, not overgrown plants. Coarse, overgrown are not suitable for planting, as they form lignified, elongated stems.

The timing of planting seedlings is determined by the time of product consumption. For summer use, seedlings of early varieties are planted in open ground at intervals of 10-15 days. The earliest planting date is late April - early May. Seedlings of late varieties can be planted simultaneously with late or medium varieties of white cabbage - from May 15 to June 5. For autumn consumption, seedlings grown in the garden are planted in a permanent place in early August.

Various methods of planting seedlings are used. Early varieties of kohlrabi, forming a small stem crop, are preferably placed on ridges or beds with a distance between the outer rows of adjacent beds (ridges) of 45-50 cm.The distance between rows is 20-25 cm.Thus, 2 rows are placed on the ridge, and 4 In a row, a plant from a plant is planted every 15-20 cm. Late varieties, which have a large rosette of leaves, are planted with wide (45-60 cm) aisles. In a row, plant from plant is at a distance of 25-50 cm. The technique of planting seedlings is as follows.

First, the surface of the bed is leveled, then the cord is pulled and, according to the distance between the plants, which depends on the variety, holes 10-12 cm deep are made with a hoe, shovel or hand scoop. 0.2-0.5 liters of water are poured into each such hole. Plants are planted in the resulting mud to the same depth at which they were in greenhouses or nurseries. Too deep planting of seedlings retards the growth of stem plants and degrades their quality. It is very useful to mulch the hole around the plants (sprinkle on top) with dry soil, or even better with a layer of peat 1.5-2 cm thick. After planting, the soil compacted in the aisles must be loosened. Mulching and loosening prevents strong evaporation of moisture from the soil.

A seedless way of growing kohlrabi

kohlrabi cabbage
kohlrabi cabbage

You can grow kohlrabi cabbage in our North-West zone and in a seedless way. For sowing, select areas with light, organic-rich soils, free of weeds. Sowing is started as soon as the soil warms up and it will be possible to process it. As a rule, from the end of April - the first days of May, sowing continues until the end of spring. Sowing rate of seeds is 0.1-0.2 g of seeds per 1 m². The seeding depth is 1.5-2.5 cm.

For a more even distribution of seeds in a row during sowing, dried sand, dry sawdust, calcined (killed) seeds of millet, rapeseed, mustard and other crops are often mixed with them as ballast. A good ballast is granular superphosphate, sifted and calibrated to the size of cabbage seeds. It not only promotes uniform sowing, but also provides young cabbage seedlings in the initial period of growth with phosphorus necessary for the development of the root system.

For 1 g of seeds, 3-10 g of superphosphate are mixed. Sowing with pelleted seeds gives very good results. Such processing simultaneously protects the seed from mechanical damage, various pests and diseases, serves as food in the first stages of plant life. Usually, seedlings of coated seeds appear earlier. The pelleted seeds can be sown without ballast, with a lower seeding rate, and most importantly, they are evenly distributed in the row and lie at the same depth when sowing. Under favorable conditions, kohlrabi shoots appear in 5-7 days. If the sowing is carried out in dry soil, then the seeds can lie in it for a long time and will sprout only after the rains have fallen. However, it is possible to speed up the emergence of seedlings even before the onset of rainy weather, if before sowing the furrows are spilled with water and immediately after sowing the soil is compacted with a board or a rake.

As soon as shoots appear, the soil must be loosened immediately. In addition, you need to closely monitor the seedlings. When a cabbage flea appears - the most dangerous pest of young cabbage plants - the crops must be urgently pollinated with tobacco dust (3-5 g / m²). Thinning of seedlings is best done in the phase of the first true leaf, but no later than 2-3rd. In a row, plants are left at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other - for early varieties and 25-50 cm - for mid-season and late ones.

Further care for kohlrabi plants grown by seedling and seedling is the same. It consists in the systematic loosening of the soil, watering, feeding, combating weeds, pests and diseases.

Read the next part. Kohlrabi: watering and feeding, growing in greenhouses →

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