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Methods And Timing Of Fertilization
Methods And Timing Of Fertilization

Video: Methods And Timing Of Fertilization

Video: Methods And Timing Of Fertilization
Video: Embrology - Day 0 7 Fertilization, Zygote, Blastocyst 2023, December

What do plants need?


Fertilizers are substances of organic and inorganic origin used to improve plant nutrition.

For organic fertilizers include manure, peat, compost, chicken manure, green manure. Organic materials improve soil structure, physical ripeness, and water permeability. They supply the soil with organic matter, humus, make it friable, warm and reduce acidity, which increases as a result of the use of mineral fertilizers.

Inorganic, or mineral, are divided into solid (powdery and granular) and liquid. Solid fertilizers include simple nitrogen (ammonium nitrate), phosphoric (phosphoric flour), potassium (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate) fertilizers. Currently, many complex mixed mineral fertilizers are produced. Microelements (ammophos, diammophos, potassium nitrate, nitrophosphate and ammonium phosphates with the addition of boron, manganese, zinc, simple and double superphosphate, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers containing molybdenum and boron, various fertilizer mixtures) are introduced into them.

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For the device of a reasonable system of fertilizers in gardens and vegetable gardens, one should know how great the need of plants for nutrients is. To calculate the doses, it is necessary to take into account biological carryover, the amount of elements that the plant absorbs per year for the development of the entire plant. In addition to biological, it is necessary to take into account the actual removal - the alienation of nutrients from the garden. It occurs as a result of harvesting, pruning branches (in the garden).

The absorption of nutrients by a plant depends not only on the content of these substances in the soil, but also on the season of the year and the phase of plant development. So during flowering, it requires more nutrients. The nutrition of plants in the second half of summer is of great importance for the harvest of the next year, and phosphorus and potassium nutrition has a great influence on their winter hardiness.

Plants react weaker to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers than to the application of nitrogen and potassium. Therefore, potash fertilizers, excluding very potassium-rich soils (serozem), are applied in high doses, as a rule, in autumn. In the spring, they are introduced in relatively low doses.

Choosing the optimal methods and timing of fertilizing the soil, you need to strive to ensure that the plants are provided with the nutrients they need throughout the entire period of their growth and development. Only in this case can you achieve high yields and quality products.

Fertilizers are embedded in the ground so that they are in a moist soil layer in the area of active activity of the plant root system (15-20 cm). With a shallow incorporation of fertilizer or surface application without embedding (0-5 cm), useful substances are located in the dried layer and do not bring the desired result.

There is a scattered method of applying mineral fertilizers with their subsequent incorporation into the soil using a mini-plow or a rake (for summer cottages) and a local method in which fertilizers are applied and embedded at a given depth in the form of ribbons, nests, foci.

Applying fertilizers by spreading is not a very convenient method, since they are unevenly distributed over the area, they can remain on the surface in a dry soil layer and are not used by plant roots.

Local application of fertilizers allows fertilizers to be embedded at a given depth, as a result of which it becomes possible to place them within the soil layer where the roots are located, which facilitates the absorption of nutrients. With local application of the main fertilizer, nutrients do not mix with the soil, are closer to the feeding part of the root system and are used more efficiently. There is evidence that the local method of fertilization intensifies microbiological activity more strongly than the method of spreading. Apply fertilizer locally economically and efficiently.

With local surface application, fertilizers are distributed over the soil surface in concentrated foci, mainly in the form of ribbons of various widths, after which they are embedded in the soil with various tillage implements.

Local intra-soil fertilization is divided into the following types: ordinary, main (tape), nesting, inter-row and root fertilization.

The increased content of ammonium nitrogen in the fertilizer belt slows down nitrification, contributes to the reduction of nitrogen losses due to the washing out of nitrates from the root layer. With this method, the contact of fertilizers with the soil is reduced, which makes it difficult for the transition of phosphorus to a hard-to-reach state and contributes to its more complete assimilation by plants.

With local application of fertilizers, the utilization rate of nitrogen from fertilizers increases by 10-15%, phosphorus - by 5-10%, potassium - by 10-12% compared to spread application.

In areas enriched with nutrients, the root system of plants develops better. The positive effect of local fertilization on the dynamics of the accumulation of dry matter and the supply of nutrients to plants is noted, which contributes to their accelerated development. This is especially true for plants with a short growing season, such as root crops (beets, carrots, etc.).

Fertilizers should not be placed in close proximity to seeds, but it is also not recommended to place fertilizers far from them. In this case, it is preferable to apply a band, which ensures a fixed arrangement of fertilizers near the planting rows and their uniform distribution over the feeding area of individual plants. The optimal placement of the main fertilizer tapes when planting root crops is 5-6 cm to the side and 2.5-7.5 cm deeper than the seeds.

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In the practice of gardening, the following methods of fertilizing are distinguished : filling the soil, basic fertilization and top dressing.

• Filling the soil involves deep embedding of fertilizers with a plow or digging to the depth of a shovel bayonet.

• The main pre-sowing fertilization is carried out before sowing or planting crops, and pre-sowing or simultaneously with planting seeds in the soil or when planting plants in holes, rows or nests.

• Top dressing is divided into root, with or without incorporation into the soil, followed by watering during active growth, and foliar, which implies spraying plants with weak fertilizer solutions during their growing season.

These techniques are interrelated, but do not completely replace each other. Only with a skillful combination can the best effect be achieved.

Refueling is done before planting. To ensure good nutrition for a long time, fertilizers are applied in increased doses to a greater depth. This is done in reserve, so that in the future, when it becomes impossible to cultivate the soil deeply, the plant can absorb a sufficient amount of nutrients from the previously created stock.

Fertilizer is applied to the dressing either throughout the site, or in separate foci. For the absorption of nutrients by plants, direct contact of the fertilizer focus with the roots is necessary. In relation to annual plants, this issue is easy to solve. Fertilizer is usually spread over the surface of the plot and mixed with the topsoil. To provide food for the fruit tree, it is enough to fertilize the upper part of the root layer, up to about 40 cm.

The duration of the fertilizer action depends not only on the dose, but also on the properties of the soil and the mobility of substances in it. Of all the elements, nitrogen is the most mobile. Phosphoric acid, combining with the ions of calcium, iron, aluminum available in the soil water, transforms into insoluble salts. Therefore, acidic soils are limed before adding these elements. Potash fertilizers are fixed in the place where they were applied.

The movement of substances is also influenced by the properties of the soil itself. For example, on heavy clay soils, fertilizers pass much more slowly than on light sandy soils. But it should be borne in mind that the easier the fertilizers move along the soil, the greater the danger that they will be outside the root layer. Therefore, clay soils are fed less often than sandy ones, but the maximum allowable doses are used.

The main pre-sowing fertilizers are those that are applied annually, in autumn or early spring, for plowing or digging. These fertilizers are needed to improve the nutritional conditions of plants throughout the growing season. Pre-filling the soil is not enough. Basic fertilizers supply plants with nutrients for the period of their growth and development. They improve the top layer of the soil, domesticate it, especially if organic substances are used. For this, manure, compost or green fertilizer are applied. Potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers are also suitable as the main pre-sowing fertilizers. Nitrogen, which contain nitrogen in the ammonia form, are applied in spring and late autumn; nitrogen in the nitrate form (nitrate) should be applied in the spring.

The pre-sowing fertilizer provides nourishment for young plants when they do not yet have a powerful root system, and therefore they are poorly assimilated useful substances. In this case, the smallest dose of fertilizer is usually used in order to avoid the accumulation of a large concentration of nutrient organic and inorganic elements in the soil, which can adversely affect the plants. Superphosphate or ammophos is usually used as a pre-sowing fertilizer.

Top dressing must be used if the crop has been growing in one place for several years, alienating nutrients from the soil, as well as in order to improve the nutrition of crops at certain periods of development or to compensate for the missing trace element in the soil. Thus, fertilizing plants is called an agrotechnical method, which provides for the application of fertilizers for agricultural crops during their growing season in order to improve nutrition and increase yields. Top dressing is an addition to the basic soil fertilization.

Usually, feeding is carried out in the stage of active plant growth; it is not recommended to carry it out at rest. The amount and time of feeding depends on the fruiting plants, weather conditions and on the soil itself. So, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied equally in lean and fruitful years. Nitrogen - in different ways. In lean years, nitrogen fertilization is applied once - in the spring; in years with a high yield, the amount of nitrogen fertilization is almost doubled in spring and summer, with the June shedding of ovaries.

When feeding, the required amount of mineral fertilizers, mainly nitrogenous, must be dissolved in a large volume of water and the area should be poured with the resulting solution. It should be borne in mind that the more water the fertilizer is dissolved in, the more evenly it will be distributed over the site.

It is necessary to mix fertilizers in accordance with the rules recommended in the instructions. Otherwise, in the resulting mixture, processes sometimes begin that lead to the loss of nutrients. For example, the release of ammonia, the transition of substances into an indigestible form, or an increase in hygroscopicity, in which the fertilizer quickly becomes unusable, may occur.

The intensity of plant growth and development and the ability of them to absorb other useful microelements depend on the presence of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the soil. An increase in the level of nitrogen nutrition contributes to a better assimilation of potassium, magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, zinc. Conversely, too high a concentration of phosphorus in the soil impairs the absorption of microelements by plants.

Distinguish between root and foliar feeding. When root feeding, fertilizers are placed in the soil, and nutrients are absorbed directly by the roots. Foliar dressing involves spraying plants with fertilizer solutions, while nutrients penetrate through the leaves and stems.

There are several ways of root feeding:

  1. Dry fertilizers are spread over the field without manually embedding into the soil.
  2. Dry fertilizers are scattered and embedded in the soil with any tools (rakes, harrows, etc.)
  3. Water solutions of fertilizers are applied during watering.

The first two methods of root feeding are effective only in rainy years. The third is more effective and acts faster, especially in dry years.

For feeding with aqueous solutions, readily water-soluble fats are usually used, such as:

  • nitrogen - ammonium nitrate (35% nitrogen), sodium (17% nitrogen), ammonium chloride (45-46% nitrogen), ammonium sulfate (20% nitrogen);
  • potash - potassium salt (35% potassium oxide);
  • phosphoric - superphosphate (from 16 to 20% of assimilated phosphoric acid).

Of organic fertilizers, slurry, bird droppings, mullein and others that are readily soluble in water are suitable for feeding.

Fertilizers for liquid root feeding are prepared as follows. Ash, slurry, well-rotted manure and micronutrient fertilizers are placed in 1/3 volume containers and filled with water to the top. The resulting mass should be infused for 5-8 days, stirring daily, until it begins to ferment. The resulting solution is diluted with water before feeding.

To prepare a mullein feeding, you need to half-fill the tub with a mullein, pour water to the top and mix the contents of the tub as many times as possible. You will get a strong mullein solution, called a mash, which is then left in a fermentation tub for 1-2 weeks. Before applying to the soil, the mullein solution is usually diluted with water and the soil is watered.

First, a chatterbox is prepared from bird droppings, then it is diluted 3-4 times with water and the resulting solution is introduced into the soil.

Superphosphates are prepared in a different way. Pour half a bucket of water, pour 300-400 g of superphosphate (powder or granular) into it and mix well. Then the solution is insisted for some time. Then it is separated from the sediment. Then water is poured two more times in a quarter of a bucket, the solution is infused and separated from the sediment. Gypsum remains in the sediment, which is part of simple superphosphate as an impurity. Double superphosphate does not contain gypsum, dissolves completely, without sediment.

It is recommended to apply liquid dressings in the grooves around the plants. Sometimes the grooves are made in a circle near the plant at the level of the crown border. For fruit trees, in addition to the annular groove, several more grooves are made under the crown.

Before applying top dressing, the soil should be watered (if it is not moist enough). After fertilizing, the plants must be sprayed to avoid burns to leaves and stems that have been accidentally hit with fertilizer. The procedure and time for making mineral dressings are described above.

Dry organic feeding is humus, peat, leafy soil, bird droppings. When fertilizing the soil, first remove the top layer of the earth by 1-2 cm, then the nutrients are evenly distributed over the site and cover the top with a layer of the soil removed before.

Foliar dressing differs from root dressing in that the nutrients of the applied fertilizers reach the plant much faster. However, foliar feeding does not last long and cannot be used often and in high concentrations. For foliar feeding, the leaves are sprayed with nutrient solutions. Spraying can be carried out early in the morning, in the evening or in the afternoon in cloudy but not rainy weather. It is necessary to correctly determine the concentration of the solution. When spraying young plants, use weaker solutions, preference is given to urea (see table)

Fertilizer doses for summer foliar dressing (for 1 bucket)

Nutrient Fertilizer Dose (g)
Nitrogen Urea 40-50
Ammonium nitrate 15-20
Phosphorus Superphosphai 300
Potassium Potassium chloride 100-150
Magnesium Magnesium sulfate 200
Boron Bura 15-20
Manganese Manganese sulfate 5-10
Zinc Zinc sulfate 5-10
Copper Copper sulfate 2-5
Molybdenum Ammonium molybdate 1-3

There are general provisions for feeding, which must be taken into account when applying fertilizers:

  • when root feeding, fertilizer is applied in the immediate vicinity of the plant root system (in the grooves along the crop row or around it);
  • when spraying, the concentration of the fertilizer solution should not exceed 1%, otherwise leaf burns may occur. In addition, fertilizers must have good water solubility.

When feeding plants, the biological characteristics of their development should be taken into account. First, nitrogen-containing substances must be added. During the budding period - phosphorus-containing elements; when fruits, tubers, bulbs appear - potassium. Plants with slow development are fertilized once every three months, large plants - 3 times every three months.

If chlorosis is found in a plant, it should be fed with iron sulfate at the rate of 2 g per 1 liter of water. Four such dressings should be carried out once a week.

Foliar dressing should be carried out for indoor plants in the summer 4-5 times. For the prevention of diseases, it is useful to water them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate three times a year. It is not recommended to water freshly transplanted or dormant plants with nutrient solutions.

When carrying out dressings, it should be remembered that fertilizers should not be overused, since in large quantities they can be detrimental to the plant.