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Video: Top Dressing And Fertilization Of Fruit Bushes - Rules And Terms
How to ensure regular and abundant fruiting of berry bushes
Currants and gooseberries
Of the traditional berry crops, currants, gooseberries and raspberries are the most demanding on soil fertility. This is due to the fact that only young shoots bear fruit intensively. The regular change of aging branches leads to the fact that nutrients are consumed, on the one hand, for the formation of the crop, and on the other hand, are alienated with the cut wood. Starting from the second year after planting, it is recommended to annually apply 4-5 kg of compost under each bush, under gooseberries - more than under currants.
Of the mineral fertilizers in the fall, only phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied. It is enough to make them once every two years. It is permissible to apply phosphorus and potassium in the spring as part of complex fertilizers, such as nitrophoska, azofoska. However, the introduction of fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium in the fall increases the winter hardiness of plants. On average, it is recommended to apply about 50 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium sulfate (or about 100 g of ash) per square meter.
On light soils, the dose of potash fertilizer should be increased by 20-30%. By the way, on such soils (sandy and sandy loam), some of the fertilizers by the end of the second year may be washed out of the upper soil layers. This is true, first of all, for currants, since the roots of gooseberries are located deeper.
Given the property of potash fertilizers to be washed out into groundwater, which is especially relevant on light soils, as well as the property of traditional phosphorus fertilizers to form phosphorus compounds inaccessible to plants with some soil substances, it is advisable, firstly, to apply mineral fertilizers together with organic ones, and secondly, use slowly dissolving fertilizers.
Such fertilizers include: from phosphorus - phosphate rock, from potash - cement dust, from complex fertilizers - AVA. This fertilizer is available both as a powder and in the form of granules that release nutrition for 2-3 years. If you add superphosphate and potassium sulfate (or ash) or AVA fertilizer in the fall, then in the spring it will be enough to add 35 gamma nitrate under the bush.
Fertilizers should be sealed to a depth of 10-12 cm.
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Fertilizers on raspberries
Raspberries are very demanding on the soil, the content of nutrients, moisture and air in them.
To ensure the respiration of the roots and the purity of the soil from weeds, some recommend carrying out an annual digging and loosening during the summer 5-6 or more times (in rows to a depth of 6-8 cm, in row spacings - up to 10-12 cm), however, with frequent treatments the soil is damaged by many raspberry roots, and the most active ones. This reduces its productivity and leads to various diseases of the root system, so it is important to mulch it with various organic materials.
Mulching improves the availability of moisture, air, nutrition, and also prevents weeds from germinating. It is advisable for gardeners to do continuous mulching, which allows not to till the soil. To do this, you can use peat, humus, composts, chopped straw, hay, foliage. Damp soils with poor drainage are not recommended for mulching.
Raspberries have the greatest demand for nitrogen and potassium, less for phosphorus. With a good pre-planting dressing of raspberry plantings in the first 2-3 years, it is enough to feed them only with nitrogen. In the future, it is necessary to annually add 3-4 kg of organic matter, 25-30 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium salt (or potassium sulfate), 15-20 g / m² of urea.
Phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be applied in the fall, organic fertilizers are usually recommended to be applied in the fall, but manure can be applied in the spring.
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Aronia (mountain ash) black-fruited
Aronia (mountain ash) black-fruited
When applying fertilizers, the root system may be damaged, therefore, it is better to apply fertilizers every 3-4 years at the rate of 1.5 kg of organic matter and 40-50 g of mineral fertilizers per square meter. With this practice, plants are less damaged and yield higher yields.
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