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Seed Sowing Methods For Open And Protected Ground
Seed Sowing Methods For Open And Protected Ground

Video: Seed Sowing Methods For Open And Protected Ground

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Video: Methods of sowing | Broadcasting, Dibbling, Drilling, , Transplanting, Hill dropping etc | 2023, January
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Some features of sowing in open ground and growing seedlings

tomato seedlings
tomato seedlings

From the editors: until spring and the start of sowing work in summer cottages, there are still several months. But soon "small" sowing will begin - on the windowsills of city apartments.

Of course, experienced gardeners have already mastered all the subtleties of this difficult and responsible business, because the success of the next season and the size of the harvest will largely depend on the quality of the grown seedlings. But we are sure that the recommendations of scientists on carrying out sowing work both on the beds and on the windowsill will be very useful to novice gardeners.

Gardener's guide

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In the conditions of the Northwest region, it is often necessary to grow many plants by seedlings. This technique accelerates their growth and is justified for the short growing season of our climatic zone. At the same time, it increases the labor costs of the gardener. Therefore, it is advisable to sow some crops directly into the ground. First of all, those whose seeds germinate quickly (turnip, radish, peas), and those whose seedlings do not tolerate transplanting well (carrots, parsley, etc.). Consider seeding methods for growing plants by seedling and seedling methods.

Sowing in open ground

sowing seeds
sowing seeds

Figure: 1. Sowing seeds in open ground

The timing of sowing in the ground depends on the biological characteristics of the plants. In early spring or before winter, you can sow seeds of crops that are cold-resistant and have a short growing season.

There are several sowing methods. If the seeds are sown in parallel grooves (Fig. 1), marked with a marker or ruler, this is the belt method.

Continuous method - when the seeds are scattered over the entire surface of the ridge. It is mainly used for vegetable crops, which will then be dived (transplanted).

For large-seeded crops (beans, beans, etc.), the nest method of sowing is often used. In this case, two large seeds are laid out in separate holes. The seeding depth depends on the size of the seeds. Usually they are buried three times the thickness of the seed. However, very small seeds (poppy, parsley, turnip, etc.) are not planted, but only after sowing the soil is lightly pressed with a board. On light and dry soils, the seeding depth is greater than on heavy soils.

Sowing seeds is a laborious job that requires certain knowledge. To reduce seed consumption and avoid seedling thinning, it is better to sow them with fillers. Usually, sand, sawdust, dry humus, mineral fertilizers, etc. are used for such purposes. For small seeds, the optimal ratio is 1:20, which is about 1 tablespoon of seeds and a glass of filler.

Recently, seeds glued to paper bands have appeared on the market. It is very convenient for both sowing and plant maintenance. However, you can also prepare for sowing at home. To do this, on a strip of loose paper (toilet, newsprint, any other) 2-4 cm wide, seeds are glued with a paste made from starch or wheat flour, at the required distance from each other. Glue is applied to one half of the strip, seeds are laid in it, and the other half of the strip is covered. Then the tapes are dried, rolled into rolls, tied with a thread or elastic band and stored like this until sowing.

Seeds that have lain for 2-3 years greatly lose their germination, therefore, when using them, it is required to increase the seeding rate. Fresh seeds can also have reduced germination if grown in a damp, cool year or stored improperly in high humidity or high temperatures. It is best to store seeds on the refrigerator door at a temperature of 3-5 ° C.

In the initial period after sowing, seedlings develop slowly. It so happens that it takes up to 20 days from germination to the appearance of real leaves. Rapid growth begins with the establishment of stable warm weather. If, nevertheless, the seedlings appeared densely, they must be thinned out. Most often, this operation is performed in two stages, while removing weaker, underdeveloped specimens. First, thin out when the first pair of true leaves appears, and the second after two weeks, leaving the plants at a distance that meets the requirements for a given species or variety.

Sowing seeds in greenhouses

Sowing seeds
Sowing seeds

Figure: 2a. Sowing seeds in greenhouses

In early spring, it is good to use glazed and film greenhouses for growing seedlings, which, depending on the culture, brings the beginning of fruiting by 3-8 weeks.

So, tomatoes, peppers, cabbage and other vegetables are first grown with dense sowing in a box. This is the so-called "school". A wooden box 45x45x7.5 cm (Fig. 2a) is filled with soil mixture (1 part peat, 1 part compost sawdust and 2 parts humus). Fertilizers are evenly sprinkled on top: 30 g of chalk, 15 g (tablespoon) of foskamide or solution and 1 g of boron. Then everything is stirred with gloved hands, poured abundantly with a hot (about 100 ° C) slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate and stirred again. After that, without compaction, level.

Sowing seeds
Sowing seeds

Figure: 2b. Sowing seeds in greenhouses

The soil mixture should be 2-3 cm below the top of the box. Otherwise, irrigation water will roll off its surface. Then parallel grooves are made (by indentation) in the box and seeds are sown on their bottom with a strip. Cover the seeds with soil, raking it from both sides of the grooves using a ruler, and once again pour water from a watering can (Fig. 2b).

Germinating seeds are sensitive to drying out of the soil, therefore, before emergence, it is necessary to cover the box with glass or plastic, thus creating a "wet chamber".

It should be remembered: until the seeds germinate, they are watered only with warm water without fertilizers.

Fertilizer solutions are saline solutions that slow down seed germination. In greenhouses, crops are kept at a temperature of 18-20 ° C, and when shoots appear, they are reduced (by ventilation) to 15-16 ° C.

pick
pick

Figure: 3. Picking seedlings

A pick is the planting of a "school" of cultivated plants in order to increase the feeding area of ​​each specimen. Seedlings can be planted both in separate pots and in boxes. The holes are prepared with a round stick with a diameter of 1-1.5 cm. The pick is started when a pair of true leaves appear in the seedlings. One plant is placed in each well. It is taken from the box and transferred to the prepared hole only by the leaf (Fig. 3). If you take it by the stem and inadvertently squeeze, bend or break unnecessarily, the plant will die. Damage to the leaf does not do this damage to it.

Often, when transplanting tomatoes and cabbage, the main root is shortened by about 1/3, which contributes to the formation of a more powerful, well-developed and branched root system. Pay attention to the fact that when transplanting the roots in the hole do not bend upwards. The plants are buried in the soil up to the cotyledonous leaves (except for pepper), the soil is pressed tightly to the roots and stem.

After picking, each pot must be watered with a small amount of warm water. In the future, there is no need to rush to watering the seedlings. In order for the root system to grow, the soil in pots or boxes must be dried. The timing of the first watering depends on the air and soil temperature. Two days after picking, the top layer of soil in the pots must be loosened up in order to retain moisture in the root zone, and also so that the roots sink down to the base of the pot.

We hope that our tips will help you solve some of the problems in the early stages of growing plants.

"Secrets" of seedlings

cabbage seedlings
cabbage seedlings

Not all grown seedlings are destined to end up in the soil - the healthiest plants should be chosen, which will be the most productive. Cull out damaged, sick, underdeveloped, leaving only healthy, squat, not elongated, with well-developed roots and a certain number of leaves.

White cabbage should have 4-5 leaves, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower - 3-4, tomato - 7-10, cucumber and zucchini - 3-4, celery, eggplant and pepper - 4-5. Seedlings with a large number of leaves, especially elongated ones, do not take root for a long time, they are sick. Because of this, the ripening of the fruits is delayed, the yield decreases.

Preparation of planting material

The cost of planting material can be significantly reduced by cutting the potato tubers using the tops and eyes. Harvest the tops in autumn and winter, cutting them from healthy potatoes weighing 70-75 g. The mass of the tops should be at least 15-20 g. In order to form a crustal layer that protects the cut from decay, keep the tubers cut up for a while. Tubers weighing at least 60 g can be cut into four parts so that each of them has 2-3 eyes.

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