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Video: Cultivation And Varieties Of Chubushnik
Jasmine? No - chubushnik
Oh, how you want to have jasmine on your site! The name is either cute, or it’s a rude thing - chubushnik… But, alas, jasmines are plants that have a place in a greenhouse or even in a room.
But chubushniks delight our sense of smell in the garden, covering themselves with a cloud of snow-white flowers during the flowering period, preferring sufficiently well-lit places, although they put up with light partial shade, but they bloom worse there.
Chubushniki are the kings of both single and group landings. They are beautiful as part of a composition of various species and varieties of plants, differing in both height and flowering time. These pleasant plants are surprisingly well combined with most of the flowering shrubs, including spireas, hydrangeas and weigels …
Chubushniki look unusually impressive against the background of trees with an openwork crown or bright foliage. Low-growing chubushniks will become indispensable for decorating rockeries, as an element of an alpine slide, and tall varieties will come in handy along the fence in the form of a lively and magnificently blooming hedge.
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The name of this plant comes from the mixed Latin and Greek naming of a fragrant shrub - philadelphos, named so, apparently in honor of the well-known king of Egypt - Ptolemy Philadelphus, he, in addition to leading the empire, was engaged in natural sciences. Initially, the hollow shoots of the chubushnik were used just for the manufacture of shanks, which gave rise to the Russian name of this plant.
The overwhelming majority of varieties of mock-orange were obtained thanks to the efforts of the French company "Lemoine", and the owner of this company himself produced them by crossing the small-leaved mock-orange and the crown mock-orange. Quite a lot of varieties were obtained, of which they were widespread - Ermine Mantle, Glacier, Alabaster, Mont Blanc, Ocharovanie, Avalanche and Devichiy. A number of them, for example, Alabaster and Glacier, are famous and very popular in Russia. They are often found in private gardens and in the catalogs of firms that produce seedlings. Alas, most varieties of French selection will not survive in the more severe regions of Russia.
However, there is no need to despair, it turns out, and in our country, in its very center, for quite a long time (more than 30 years), an intense and painstaking work was carried out to create first-class varieties of chubushnik. The famous Nikolai Kuzmich Vekhov, at the Lipetsk experimental breeding station, created many varieties that are considered the pinnacle of the selection of chubushniki. Among these beautiful plants, varieties known throughout Russia:
Chamomile, distinguished by its short stature, a huge number of flowers with long petals, which, during the flowering period, cover the plant like a snow-white carpet, from a distance resembling a chamomile field.
The variety with the striking name Ballet of Moths is the crown of creation, everything in the variety is harmonious, and the name, and the indescribable aroma of a moonlit night, and flowers that really resemble a night butterfly. Under the shade of a tree with such a romantic name, love is really born during its flowering period.
Another Arctic variety is white silence, green foliage and large snow-white and indescribably fragrant stars of flowers, as if in the Arctic on a polar night shining in the sky.
The author, in love with chubushniki, was apparently overwhelmed with feelings when another masterpiece opened its buds, as if waking up after a long sleep. Here is another variety - the Moonlight, obtained more than half a century ago, gives rise to enthusiastic looks to this day. Everything is attractive in it - and small growth, thin, reddish shoots, and finely serrated leaves and, of course, flowers - their inflorescences, placed on small branches and consisting of three flowers. The flowers are terry, which makes them tender, have a delicate strawberry aroma and a solid diameter - more than 3.5 cm.
More patriotic names were given to two more masterpieces - Elbrus and Komsomolets. They are somewhat similar, but they also have their own differences. Both varieties are shrubs with strong shoots carrying up to 11 pairs of flowering stems, each of which blooms bud-shaped inflorescences consisting of nine terry snow-white, fragrant flowers up to 4.5 centimeters in diameter. Both varieties bloom very profusely, and differing in the color of flowers: at Elbrus they are more creamy.
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The variety Akademik Komarov fell in love with gardeners for its large flowers, often exceeding a diameter of seven centimeters. They, alas, are not terry, but snow-white and collected in five pieces in small inflorescences. The Pearl variety has even larger flowers, exceeding 7.5 centimeters and hanging like pearl beads.
The popular variety of Airborne assault, which has thin shoots that lean almost to the ground under the weight of large flowers, flower stalks on which are more than 15 centimeters long with several pairs of leaves and rather long, more than 9 centimeters inflorescences.
The flowers of this variety are creamy white and have a persistent, strong strawberry aroma. Everything in this variety attracts, even the shape of the bush, which allows you to form an amazing hedge from the plants. Unusual and Unusual variety with beautiful slightly curved reddish shoots and very small foliage. Alas, there are already lost varieties that are no longer possible to restore, only memory remains, such is, for example, the variety Sergey Yesenin …
Interesting varieties belonging to the group of non-flowering - Dwarf and Dwarf. The Dwarf variety is undersized, has a pillow-shaped bush, reaches a height of 45-50 centimeters and is distinguished by a very large and wide dark green mass of foliage. This, as mentioned above, is a non-flowering variety, perfect for specimen plantations placed on the lawn, or as border plants. The Dwarf variety also differs slightly from its brother, it, like the Dwarf, does not bloom and is also ideal as a single planting, however, it also has its own differences, which are expressed in the size of the foliage - in the Dwarf variety it is small and narrow.
All these varieties can now be purchased in specialized garden centers, but there are not so many such centers. Amateur gardeners who specialize in the sale of chubushnik seedlings sell mainly old varieties, without risking selling little winter-hardy novelties. Prices vary greatly depending on the region of sale and can be either 150 or 1500 rubles per plant.
The technology for the production of chubushnik seedlings is not complicated, good results can be achieved with the help of root suckers, layering, sowing seeds (of course, not varieties), green cuttings, or simply dividing the bush.
Seeds are sown in the autumn or early spring. Chubushnik seeds do not need stratification, they germinate well, being sown in greenhouses or greenhouses. Chubushnik shoots are very delicate and require shade.
Chubushnik varieties are propagated only by the so-called vegetative methods - cuttings, layering. Cuttings can be prepared in the fall and dug in until spring in the soil, basement or on the balcony in a box of sand. In early spring, they must be planted in the soil, this time is also favorable because it is rich in moisture. Light soil, permeable to both air and water, for example, sandy loam, is ideal for good rooting of chubushnik cuttings. Cuttings are usually planted obliquely into holes made by any stick of small diameter. Cuttings are placed in the soil up to the upper pair of buds, and the soil is compacted around.
The plan for planting cuttings is usually 40 by 10 cm.When favorable conditions are created, sufficient temperature and humidity, in a month and a half, the cuttings will take root, and by the end of summer a root lobe will form on them. In order for the roots to grow faster and develop better, after the start of growth of the shoots, it is advisable to huddle the plant. During the summer, it is advisable to loosen the soil around the plants, remove weeds and be sure to water. The next year, the aboveground part is usually trimmed, and in the fall the plants are transplanted to any suitable place.
Not only lignified, but also green cuttings easily take root in the mock orange, which are cut from developed, powerful shoots at the end of June. On the cuttings obtained (12-15 cm long), all leaves are removed, except for a couple of the upper ones, if they are too large, then they are shortened by half. The difference between green cuttings and rooting of lignified cuttings is that this method requires a greenhouse equipped with an irrigation unit, or a simple greenhouse that you will have to water at least six times a day.
A green stalk is planted in a light substrate consisting of peat and sand. In this case, the lower end is buried in the soil mixture for a couple of centimeters and the substrate is squeezed around the cutting. The scheme for planting cuttings is usually 5 by 5 cm. By the fall, a rather powerful root system is formed on the cuttings, and they can be transplanted into loose and nutritious soil for growing. A higher yield of rooted green cuttings is observed in small-leaved varieties such as Lavina.
Chubushniks reproduce well by layering, and ordinary old or even young bushes are not very suitable for this. It is better to create a special mother plant, which in the spring of the previous year needs to be cut to the level of the soil, and the next year the shoots formed can be folded back and pinned off the ground, filling them with fertile soil.
In such a simple way, which does not require any additional costs, up to 40 seedlings can be obtained from one plant, characterized by a fairly good quality of the root system.
As you can see, it is easy to get planting material for a mock-orange, but is it difficult to grow it? It turns out that the agrotechnics of the chubushnik are not at all complicated. Let's start with distance. It takes at least 1.5 meters between the bushes, of course, unless you want to get a flowering hedge. Only a well-lit place is suitable. Planting depth is about 55-60 cm, provided that the root collar is deepened by no more than 2-3 cm. If you overdo it and “bury” the plant even deeper, it may simply die. Usually, seedlings take root very well and quickly start to grow, bloom.
In conditions of gas pollution, dustiness, dry air, that is, in conditions of large cities, the varieties of our selection will survive - Moonlight, Komsomolets, Arctic, Akademik Komarov and others. Caring for them, however, as well as for other varieties, consists in periodic feeding - with urea, potassium sulfate, superphosphate, in periodic weeding and, of course, watering. In order to avoid a strong thickening of the bush and a decrease in its decorative qualities in early spring, all dry shoots growing inside the crown, as well as too thin, sick, broken, and too powerful, should be removed. This simple procedure will allow your chubushnik to be forever young and actively bloom.
When winter comes, assess the garden setting. If there is enough snow, then there is no need to cover the plants, but if there are frequent and rather sharp drops in temperature with no or very little snow cover, then it is necessary to wrap the base of the plant with non-woven material, or lay it with spruce branches, which retains snow well.