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Video: Interesting Grape Varieties
Grapes: cultivation features, promising varieties
Grapes are the oldest plant on our planet. People have been growing it since time immemorial. The vine and its bunches served as a symbol of fertility, labor and peaceful life.
The grape bush can be shaped in a variety of ways, depending on the wishes of the person and the purpose of the vine. It can be raised to a great height, which means that it will decorate the wall of the house, cover the gazebos, curl arches and galleries.
To cope with these tasks, one should correctly determine the planting site, skillfully select a variety and know the biological characteristics of the grapes. No culture can beautify your garden like grapes. The decorative qualities are important, but they are not essential.
The grapes have excellent taste and nutritional properties. They and grape juice increase the metabolism in the human body, therefore they can be widely used as a therapeutic and general strengthening product for the human body. Not only fresh grapes have healing properties.
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In folk medicine, its dried fruits, as well as stems and leaves, have long been used. Not many people know that a grape leaf can be successfully used in the preparation of cabbage rolls. There is a whole science of natural wine curing diseases such as malaria, flu, bronchitis, etc.
Grapes are a very interesting plant, responsive to human care and attention. The enthusiasm of the people cultivating this crop overcomes the barriers of the climate.
Selecting new varieties with increased resistance to diseases and low temperatures, very early in terms of ripening of berries, reliably protecting the vine from winter frosts, amateurs grow grapes on their private plots and in central Russia, and in the more northern regions of Moscow, Leningrad, Orenburg and others areas. This is possible, in particular, due to the flexibility of the vines, which can be easily bent and covered for the winter with earth or other covering materials.
Staying for several months in damp soil, the vine does not lose its fruitfulness. Try it with other crops, like peach or cherry. Even if it is possible to save the wood, the buds will simply fall off from contact with the ground. This resistance of grapes to damping of buds when they are sheltered is used by amateur growers everywhere where there is a risk of freezing in winter.
The main thing in the cultivation of grapes in unusual conditions for him is the choice of the variety. The variety is the key to success. The grower needs to know the characteristics of the varieties that he is going to grow on his site. The right varieties can help avoid disappointment. In the list below, you will find varieties and hybrid forms from different countries and continents, both old and new, with a very short growing season (95-125 days), sufficiently high winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases.
Donskoy agate - the variety was bred in the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant Engineering named after Ya. I. Potapenko, early ripening. Bushes are vigorous. Bunches are large, conical, moderately dense, with an average weight of 500-600 g. Berries are large 25x26 mm, average weight - 6 g, dark blue, pleasant taste. The pulp is fleshy, juicy. The yield of the variety is very high and stable. Shoots ripen very well. Don agate can withstand frosts without sheltering bushes for the winter to -26 ° C, it is also resistant to fungal diseases.
Arcadia (Nastya) is a variety of early ripening with very large beautiful bunches, some of which exceed the weight of 2 kg. The berries are very large - 7-8 g, amber, original ovoid with a pointed tip. Their taste is pleasant. When fully ripe, a light nutmeg aroma appears on the palate. The sugar content of the juice is up to 22%. Resistance to frost down to -24 ° C. In terms of the sum of economically valuable traits, the Arcadia variety is among the top ten varieties. It far surpasses the best imported grape varieties in marketability and taste.
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Resistant Bulgaria - early maturing table Bulgarian variety. The bunches are large, 500-600 g and more. Berries of a beautiful amber color 26x24mm, oval-oblong with an average weight of 7-8 g. The sugar content of the juice is up to 21%.
The pulp is juicy, the skin is thin. The variety has a high taste. There is a pleasant nutmeg tone in the taste. The variety is fruitful. Resistance to frost down to -23 ° C. The variety has complex disease resistance.
Delight white - grade VNIIViV them. Ya. I. Potapenko, very early ripening with large clusters (500-700 g). Berry 27x24 mm, average weight 6-7 g, slightly oval, white with a very high sugar content, in some years - up to 26%. The harvest is preserved on the bushes without loss of marketability. Resistance to frost down to -25 ° C. The variety is distinguished by its high taste and resistance to fungal diseases.
Victoria is the working name for a hybrid form of early ripening grapes. The average weight of a bunch is 500-700 g. Berry 27x22mm with an average weight of 7 g, oval-ovoid, red-raspberry, pleasant harmonious taste. When the berries are fully ripe, a nutmeg flavor appears. The variety is prone to crop overload, therefore it is necessary to normalize the load of bushes with inflorescences and bunches, especially in a self-rooted culture. Abundantly forms a second crop on stepchildren, which begins to ripen after the main crop.
The variety is resistant to mildew, powdery mildew, gray rot. Without shelter it can withstand frosts down to -26 … -27 ° C degrees, thus confirming its high winter hardiness.
Zarif is a table variety of the Central Asian selection of a very early ripening period. In the south of Russia, the variety ripens by July 20. The clusters are medium-sized, conical. Average berry weighing 6 g, dark purple, rounded. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. Withstands frosts down to -21 ° С. The variety responds well to increased doses of fertilizers, timely watering, root and foliar dressing, and at the same time has even larger clusters and berries.
Codreanka is a variety of Moldovan selection. Refers to table varieties of a very early ripening period. The bunches are large and very large, with an average weight of about 600-700 g, conical in shape, and medium density. The berries are large, 31x21 mm, with an average weight of 6-8 g, elongated, dark purple.
The pulp is fleshy and juicy with a dense crispy skin. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. Very high yield. Shoots ripen well. Roots well. The crop can remain on the bushes for a long time. The variety is highly resistant to mildew, phylloxera, gray mold and powdery mildew. Winter hardiness - up to -23 ° С.
Codrianka is one of the largest commercial varieties of very early ripening. In Russia, it is the most widespread variety both in its central part and in Siberia. Tasting assessment of fresh grapes - 8.8 points.
Cardinal is an early ripening table grape variety of the USA, California. The clusters are large and very large, cylindrical-conical, loose, with an average weight of 600-700 g or more. The berries are very large, 30x26 mm, oval, violet-red, with an average weight of 9-10 g. The pulp is fleshy, juicy, crunchy. The taste of the grapes is very pleasant with a mild nutmeg aroma. The sugar content of the juice is up to 19%. The tasting score of fresh grapes is very high. The Cardinal variety is very common all over the world. It is grown in France, USA, Turkey, Greece, etc. It perfectly tolerates transportation and long-term storage.
Laura is an amateur name for a hybrid form of Ukrainian selection, early ripening. Bunches are broad-conical, medium density, large and very large - 800-1000 g. Berries are oval, milky white, on the sunny side with a brown tan, large and very large - 30x24 mm weighing 7-9 g. The pulp is dense, the seeds are small. The sugar content is very high - up to 23%. The berry taste is harmonious and pleasant.
With good care and a large supply of old wood on the bushes, bunches reach a weight of more than 1.5 kg, and berries - 10-12 g or more. The variety is very productive and has high transportability. Resistant to frost (-23 ° C), mildew and gray mold. In terms of marketability, Laura is one of the best early ripening varieties. Numerous growing experience confirms the prospects of the variety in many regions.
Pleven (Phenomenon) is a Bulgarian variety. Refers to table varieties of early ripening. The bunches are large with an average weight of 450-500 g, cylindrical-conical, of moderate density. The berries are large, weighing 6-7 g, aligned, oblong, amber-yellow. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. The pulp is fleshy and juicy.
The variety is distinguished by a fairly high frost resistance (-25 ° C) and is the record holder for complex resistance to fungal diseases. The aligned bunches of Pleven have high transportability and excellent marketability, and are resistant to peas. The tasting score of fresh grapes is very high.
Pleven nutmeg - refers to the table varieties of the very early ripening period. It ripens 5-7 days earlier than the well-known Codryanka variety. The bunches are large, with an average weight of 400-450 g, cylindrical-conical, of medium density. The berries are large, weighing 6-7 g, leveled, oblong, amber-yellow. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. The pulp of the berries is juicy, crunchy with a weak nutmeg aroma. With increased use of organic and mineral fertilizers, larger clusters and berries are obtained. The variety deserves the widest distribution due to its high reliability and fertility.
Timur is the working name of the new hybrid form obtained at the V.N. Ya.I. Potapenko. Very early ripening. Bunches are large, 500-650 g, cylindrical-conical. The berries are large, 29x21 mm, weighing 6-8 g, oval with a pointed tip, white with an amber or slightly pink sun tan.
The flesh is crispy with a nutmeg aroma. The peel of the berries is not felt when eaten. Ripening of shoots is complete and early. The variety takes root well, begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year after planting. Large bunches, often with berries of 33-23 mm, are obtained under reduced load. In some years, the sugar content of berry juice exceeds 25%.
Tomayskiy is a variety of the selection of the Moldavian Research Institute of Life Sciences, a very early ripening period. Bushes are vigorous. The bunches are large, weighing 400-600 g, branched or conical, of medium density. Berries are large, 27x26 mm, with an average weight of 7-8 g, oval, red-violet, resembling the Cardinal variety in appearance and taste. The yield is high, the variety is resistant to mildew and has an increased resistance to powdery mildew and phylloxera. Winter hardiness - up to -23 ° С. The variety is appreciated for its early ripening period, excellent taste and beautiful appearance. Has a good marketability and average transportability.
New Russian - Euro-Amur hybrid of A. I. Potapenko selection. Refers to varieties of very early ripening. The growth of the bushes is above average. The cluster is medium, conical, medium dense or loose. The berry is medium and large, round, dark pink with a very high sugar accumulation. The taste is very pleasant and harmonious. The variety is resistant to mildew and gray mold. Frost resistance is high, up to -28 oС, can be tested in non-covering form, but it is more reliable, probably, with light cover. A truly amateur variety. Amateur winegrowers call it "candy". Tasting assessment of fresh grapes - 9 points.
Super-early elegant - table grade VNIIViV them. Ya. I. Potapenko, very early ripening. Bunches are large, 300-500 g and more, cylindrical-conical. Berries are large 29x21mm, weighing 7-8 g, nipple-shaped or oval with a pointed tip, white, sunburned. The flesh of the berries is crispy, with a weak nutmeg aroma. The sugar content of the berry juice is very high, in some years it reaches 25% sugar. The peel of the berries is not felt when eaten. The variety takes root well and starts bearing fruit 2-3 years after planting. Frost resistance - up to -25 ° С. Resistant to mildew, gray mold.
Kish-mish radiant - a variety of selection of the Moldavian Research Institute of Life Sciences, early middle ripening period. Bunches are large and very large 600-800 g, conical, branched, medium density or loose. With good care, bunches often weigh more than 1 kg. Berries are large, weighing 3.5-4.5 g, elongated-oval, beautifully colored pink with a pleasant nutmeg flavor.
The pulp is fleshy and juicy. The skin is firm. High transportability. Due to the large size of the bunches, the variety is prone to overloading the bushes with crops, therefore, it is required to reduce the load on the shoots. The variety is resistant to gray rot and powdery mildew. Radiant quiche is the best achievement in breeding seedless varieties. The variety usually takes the first places at the tastings.
Speaking about the agricultural technology of grapes, it should be noted that the most important thing is that there is enough summer heat for the ripening of berries and the ripening of the vine, and it is a matter of technology to cover the vine for the winter.
In most of central Russia, the sum of active temperatures does not exceed 2400 degrees. For very early varieties, the sum of active temperatures is required - 1800-2000 degrees, for early varieties - 2000-2200 and for early middle 2200-400 degrees. But if you grow grapes near the southern walls of houses and buildings, as well as use temporary film shelters, then the amount of active temperatures can be increased by another 200 degrees.
There are varieties and cultivation technologies for the development of grapes in the north, and most importantly - a great desire of gardeners and summer residents. Perhaps, in unusual conditions for yourself, the grapes will not be of the same quality as in the south of our country, but it will be grown by your own hands, and you will surprise your friends and familiar northern grapes.