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Proven Grape Varieties And Growing Recommendations
Proven Grape Varieties And Growing Recommendations

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Video: How To Choose A Table Grape Variety To Grow 2023, January

Recommendations for the care of grapes in the northern regions

Growing grapes
Growing grapes

The beginning of seasonal work of the winegrower in the northern regions of our country comes early. When a positive temperature is established even at night at a level not lower than + 8 ° C … + 10 ° C, it is possible to stimulate the awakening and growth of the root system of grapes.

To do this, water it through "wells" with warm (+ 25 … + 30 ° C) melt or rain water. After that, having installed low arcs and covering the vines with a film, you can wait for the onset of the first visible phase of the awakening of grapes - the beginning of sap flow.

Sap flow or, as it is called otherwise, "crying" of the vine can be considered a good sign, a sign that the grape bush has successfully overwintered, its root system has not suffered, and, therefore, the plant itself is alive.

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Scientists-winegrowers have proven that the "sap" flowing from the cuts, cracks and breaks of the vine does not contain nutrients, and its release, contrary to popular belief, does not have a negative effect on the growth and fruiting of bushes. After all, plants do not emit it from themselves, but, absorbing moisture from the soil by the roots, only drive it through the vines, restoring the water balance.

According to the famous winegrower, the author of numerous varieties, Professor P. P. Radchevsky, “the judgment that the spring“cry”of the vine weakens the plant is unfounded. The negative effect of abundant sap extraction can only be in the case of severe soil drought. However, such a phenomenon is extremely rare in the spring."

Ten days after the start of sap flow, the eyes begin to awaken. Under a film cover, which smoothes out average daily temperature jumps well, they, swelling and slightly naklyuvshis green sprouts, at low positive temperatures seem to freeze and sometimes sit under the kidney scales for up to one and a half weeks. And this phenomenon, oddly enough, turned out to be a positive factor affecting the increase in the fruitfulness of grapes.

I would like to quote from the book of a graduate of the Kuban Agricultural University, a practicing winegrower, who has worked as an agronomist in the Don vineyards for more than thirty years, V.V. Burovoy: “It is known for certain that at low spring temperatures (8 … 10 ° C) the buds only swell, but do not bloom, and this contributes to the development and formation of new inflorescences, while their fertility increases. With the early onset of high temperatures, the buds open faster, but their fruitfulness is less."

The next phase of the spring development of grapes is an intensive growth of shoots, leaves and the formation of inflorescences, and the daily growth of shoots during this period can reach 15 cm. At this time, the first fragment of green shoots is carried out. But before embarking on this operation, you need to confirm to yourself, as a rule, the following: the eyes located on the nodes with the stepson and antennae are distinguished by the highest fertility, the eyes are less fertile only with a stepson or only with a mustache. Eyes on the nodes that have neither stepchildren nor antennae have very weak fruitfulness. That is why I recommend not breaking the stepsons completely, but only pinching them over 2-3 sheets.

Also, contrary to the recommendations of many publications on grape agricultural technology, I do not recommend short pruning of the vine for fruiting. The development of the lower eyes on the vine and the formation of inflorescences of the next year's harvest in them in more northern regions often occurs either under adverse weather conditions or, conversely, with the violent growth of the apical part of the shoot, which draws off most of the plastic substances. As a result, the inflorescences of the first 2–4 buds, as a rule, are not fully developed and cannot be considered standard in quality and characteristic of this variety.

The most developed fruit buds are the buds in the middle part of the vine, the development of which coincided with the peak of development of the grape bush and the onset of the most favorable temperature values ​​and water balance.

The beginning of flowering of grapes is in direct proportion to how soon the plant manages to gain the sum of active temperatures, and usually takes place from mid-May to mid-June. That is why the grower should not wait for "mercy from nature" but, using any available measures: watering the bushes with warm water, installing low (30–40 cm) film tunnels over the vines, etc., help the grape bushes to quickly collect the amount necessary for flowering active temperatures. Agree, it is easier to cover the vine in the spring than, saving the late harvest from early frosts, wrapping overgrown bushes in foil in autumn.

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Growing grapes
Growing grapes

At the very beginning of flowering, when the first caps (corollas) fall off the flowers, it is then, not earlier and not later, that the tops of the fruitful shoots must be minted. A significant part of the growth of a young vine is removed, leaving at least 5–7 large leaves above the inflorescence. This reception is temporary for 10-14 days, ie. just at the time of flowering, it stops the growth of the shoot, due to which the nutrition of the inflorescences increases, more berries are tied, and, therefore, the weight and quality of the bunches increase.

Weak pinching of the "crown" (the bent tip of the shoot with 2-3 small leaves) will not only not give a positive result, but, on the contrary, weakening the flow of nutrients to the inflorescence will only do harm. The fact is that a weak pinching will stop the growth of the shoot for only three to four days, and the growth of the shoot will resume from the upper stepson bud just during intensive flowering, drawing off most of the nutrition for its development.

Pay special attention to the so-called stepchildren. They play a very important role in the formation of the fruit bud of the next fruiting year. By pinching the stepson over the second leaf, you limit its growth, and the rapidly developing leaves of the stepson, participating in photogenesis, will bring additional nutrition to the fruit bud.

In short, this is what affects the increase in the yield of grapes, not allowing it to turn into an unproductive decorative vine. Moreover, the varieties of my grape collection were initially selected according to the principle: frost resistance + early maturity + large-fruited. So why not get a reasonable maximum from the genetic potential that scientists have skillfully put into the variety, creating a new hybrid form.

Interesting grape varieties for the North

Here are some of the new varieties I received from nurseries and from the authors of varieties for variety testing.

Viking (ZOS-1 x Kodryanka). The newest hybrid form of the table direction of a very early ripening period - 100–110 days, was developed by V.V. Zagorulko. The bush is vigorous on its roots. Bunches are large, conical, medium-soft - 700-900 g. Berries are large 22x34 mm, nipple-shaped, dark blue. The variety ripens 3-4 days earlier than the parent variety Codryanka. The crop can be stored on the bush until the end of September, without losing its taste and marketability. Ripening of shoots is complete and early. The variety is resistant to mildew - 3.4-4 points, to oidium - 3 points. Frost resistance –21 ° С.

Int-41. Variety of early middle ripening period - 125-130 days. Vigorous in its own-rooted culture. High-yielding. Bunches of medium density, less often loose, cylindro-conical, very large - 1500-2000 g. Berries are large, oval, average weight 6-8 g, dark pink, pleasant harmonious taste. Frost resistance up to -22 ° С.

Galahad ((Talisman x Delight) x Muscat Delight) [VNIIViV im. Ya. I. Potapenko, Russia]. Table hybrid form of grapes. Ripening period is very early - 95-100 days. The clusters are cylindrical-conical, very large - 600-1100 g, of moderate density. The berries are oval-ovoid, amber-yellow, very large, with an average weight of 10-12 g. Frost resistance up to -25 ° C, the resistance of the hybrid form Galahad to mildew - 2.5 points, to oidium -3 points, resistant to gray rot.

Gala (Gift to Zaporizhzhia x Kodryanka). The early ripening table form is 110-115 days. Very vigorous. The flower is bisexual. The berries are blue, oval, 8-10 g, the clusters are large, medium-dense, similar in structure to the bunch of grapes Black Delight. Resistance to mildew, oidium - 3-3.5 points. Frost resistance up to –21 ° С.

Harold. The working name of the new form is IV-6-5-pc from the crossing combination [(Rapture x Arcadia) x Summer Muscat]. Ripening period is very early, ripens in late July - early August (95-100 days). Bushes are vigorous. The clusters are cylindrical-conical, large - 400-500 g, medium density. The berries are oval, with a pointed tip, amber-yellow, with an average weight of 5-6 g. The form is resistant to mildew - 3 points, oidium - 3.5 points, gray rot. Transportability is good.

Hercules (Magarach 10-51-1 (Katta-Kurgan x Kirovobad dining room) x Antey Magarachsky (Ruby Magarach x Magarach 85-64-16)). An early, sweet table variety of NIIViV Magarach selection for fresh consumption. Berry 28x32 mm, dark pink, bunches from 1500 g to 6000 g. It has field resistance to phylloxera, mildew, gray rot and frost down to -23 ° С.

Don dawns. The working name of the new canteen form is GF 1-2-1-1 (1-83 / 29 x (Arcadia + Fairy)). Very early ripening period of 105-110 days. The bunches are very large - 700-900 g, cylindrical, dense. The berries are large, weighing 5-6 g, oval, white-pink. The flesh that melts in the mouth, the skin is practically not felt. Frost resistance -24 ° С. Shape resistant to mildew. Detonation assessment of fresh grapes 7.9 points.

K-8-1, - a variety of French selection of a very early ripening period. Introduced to Russia from Ukraine. The berry is dark red with prune, large - up to 10 g, round. The bunch is conical, large, weighing 500-800 g, elegant, Unlike the parent variety Cardinal berries without peas. The taste is harmonious with a light nutmeg aroma. Bushes are vigorous. Resistance to fungal diseases and frost is being studied.

Carmen (FVC-94-3 x Nadezhda AZOS). Hybrid early ripening form. Bunches are large 600-800 g and more, elegant. Berries are oval, black, large, 6-8 g. The taste is simple, harmonious. Ripening of shoots and rooting of cuttings is good. Resistance to mildew, oidium - 2 points, gray rot - 3 points. Frost resistance up to -23 ° С.

Libya (Flamingo x Arcadia) BB Zagorulko. A hybrid table form of grapes of a very early ripening period. The growing season from the beginning of budding to the removable ripeness of berries is 105-110 days. The bunch is large, 25 cm or more long, cylindrical, medium-sized. The berry is oval to ovoid. Berry length 28 mm and more, width 18-20 mm. The color of the berry is pink. The pulp is fleshy and juicy with high sugar accumulation. The skin is not felt when eating. The hybrid form has large clusters with large pink berries, with a pronounced nutmeg aroma that remains in the berry after ripening for up to 30 days. Frost resistance up to - 21 ° С.

Matryoshka (Wax x Radiant Kishmish). Ripening period is early middle - 120-125 days. The clusters are cylindro-conical, very large - 600-1000 g, individual up to 1500 g, dense. Berries are pink-red, very large, 6-10 g, oval. The pulp is fleshy and juicy. The taste is harmonious. The skin is thin, easily torn. Frost resistance up to -24 ° С. Resistant to mildew - 2.5 points, gray rot.

Monarch [Talisman x (Cardinal + pollen mix)]. Hybrid table form of early middle ripening period. The flower is bisexual. Ripens in the second half of August. The bunches are large, 500-700 g, elegant, without peas. The berries are oval, yellow, in the sun with a red tan, very large, weighing up to 15 g. The pulp is dense, the skin is easily eaten. Resistance to mildew, oidium and gray rot - 2 points. Frost resistance up to -25 ° С.

Rochefort [Kesha-1 x (Cardinal + pollen mixture)]. The table form is of a very early ripening period (ripens at the end of July). Bushes are vigorous. Ripening of shoots is good. Berries are dark red, black when overripe, round, weighing 6-8 g. Fleshy pulp, harmonious taste with a light nutmeg aroma. Bunches are medium and large up to 500 g, conical, moderately dense. The flower is bisexual. Resistance to mildew, powdery mildew and gray rot 3-3.5 points.

Ruta (Talisman x Radiant Kishmish) V.V. Zagorulko. Table hybrid form of grapes, very early ripening (95-100 days). Own-rooted plantations are very vigorous. The clusters are large, conical, medium-loose. The berries are large and very large, nipple-shaped, pink in color. The taste of berries is harmonious, with a high sugar accumulation - 20%. Resistance to mildew, powdery mildew 3.5-4 points. Frost resistance up to –21 ° С.

Simona, Gf-21. The canteen form of the superearly ripening period is 90-110 days. Vigorous. The bunches are very large - 700-900 g, individual - up to 1200 g. The berries are large, with an average weight of 4-5 g, white with a pink tint, fleshy and juicy, dessert taste. Sugar content 20%. Resistance to frost -25 ° C.

Sofia (Arcadia x Kishmish Radiant) V.V. Zagorulko. Table form of grapes of early ripening. The growing season from the beginning of bud opening to the ripening of berries is 110-115 days. The clusters are large and very large. The berries are large and very large (28-36 mm long, 20-21 mm wide), pink in color. The skin of the berry is not felt when eaten. The pulp is fleshy and juicy, with a nutmeg aroma. Frost resistance up to - 21 ° С.

Sphinx (Strashensky x Timur) V.V. Zagorulko. Table form of grapes of a very early ripening period - 100-105 days. The bunch is large - 700-800 g, cylindrical-conical. Berries are large, 28-32 mm, dark blue with crunchy flesh, harmonious taste with a characteristic varietal aroma. In the spring, the buds bloom late, which often protects the grapes from recurrent frosts in May. Resistance of the Sphinx to mildew, oidium 3-3.5 points. Frost resistance up to -23 ° С.

Shunya (Victoria x Rizamat) is a table hybrid form of early ripening. The flower is bisexual. Medium-sized. The bunch is large - more than 500 g, without peas. The berries are large, 6-7 g, rounded, bright red. The pulp is firm. The taste is pleasant, harmonious. Shoots ripen early along their entire length. Rooting of cuttings is good. Resistance to mildew, oidium and gray rot - 2.5 points. Frost resistance - up to -24 ° С.

These are the promising forms that I received last year, and the seedlings from them will only be in a year. However, in addition to them, there are several dozen equally interesting varieties and hybrid forms in my collection. Observing the above-mentioned not at all tricky recommendations, it is quite easy to get a grape harvest in the open field not only in the Urals, but also in the north-western region of Russia.

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