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Video: Growing Vegetables Without Digging The Soil - Organic Farming
Harvest rise easily without digging deep
It is known that already 6000 years ago people were engaged in agriculture. Unable to plow the land deeply, they loosened the topsoil with a hoe or plow and sowed seeds. In the fall, the harvest was removed, and all the crop residues were left in the fields. For top dressing, organic fertilizers and herbal infusions were used, and weeds were fought with a hoe.
It has been like this for thousands of years. However, over the past 200-300 years, with the development of science and industry, three main innovations have been introduced into agriculture:
- instead of superficial, they began to use deep plowing in the fields, with a shovel in small areas;
- instead of organic, mineral fertilizers began to be used;
- to protect plants from pests, pesticides began to be used.
As a result, at the first stage, the yield of cultivated crops increased, the susceptibility of plants to pests decreased, which, along with widespread propaganda, predetermined the widespread introduction of the now traditional agricultural technology.
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But it’s not that simple. Such interference with the natural biocenosis, such as deep plowing with a seam turnover, has led to depletion and erosion of soils. The use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides caused pollution of soil and water bodies, and, consequently, of food, which negatively affects human health. In addition, the labor intensity per unit of product is constantly increasing.
The impasse in which traditional agriculture has entered today has forced many people around the world to look for new ways and return to a new level to the methods of natural (organic) farming (OZ)
The first acquaintance with OZ methods is surprising. For example:
- working less on the site, you can get a larger harvest;
- the soil must be loosened with a flat cutter to a depth of no more than 5-7 cm. (Labor-intensive digging of the earth to a depth of 25-30 cm with a seam overturn is irreparable harm.)
- the moisture content of the soil increases, and it is required to water significantly (2-3 times) less;
- fighting weeds is much easier;
- in narrow beds, where the number of plants is much less than in wide beds, the yield is much higher, etc.
The reasons for this are that the methods of agrotechnology of OZ are based on scientifically substantiated data on the nutrition and development of plants in the earth as a habitat for plants and the habitat of accompanying animals (bacteria, worms and other "living matter").
Without going into the scientific subtleties of plant nutrition, we only note that the bulk of plants (99.7%) is formed from water and air when exposed to sunlight, the rest is made up of mineral elements. The most important of these is nitrogen. But plants do not assimilate atmospheric nitrogen; they can only use nitrogen that has entered the soil as a result of the vital activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. For the normal course of this process (nitrification), as well as the development of plants as a whole, the balance of air and water must be maintained in the soil, which is possible only if the porous structure of the soil is preserved. Other mineral elements (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, etc.) are obtained by plants from the soil. Moreover, most of them are contained in humus (organic humus), which is the basis of fertility.
OZ agrotechnology is aimed at providing plants with food, water and air at the same time and in the maximum necessary quantities, it allows you to create such a soil structure in which biological, physical and chemical processes are successful, favorable for nutrition and, therefore, good plant growth. This is possible only with a porous (spongy) soil structure. Such a structure is formed: firstly, when humus accumulates in the soil, secondly, as a result of the activity of worms that create a system of channels in the soil, and, thirdly, when voids form in the soil due to decomposition of plant roots.
It is not difficult to apply OZ agricultural technology. To preserve soil fertility, it is necessary to preserve and restore humus. This is achieved by surface (5-7 cm deep) tillage with a flat cutter and the introduction of large quantities of organic fertilizers, which, when decomposed, form a layer of humus. Organic matter can be introduced by mulching and sowing green manure (plants intended for rotting in the soil). Any organic waste, hay, straw, cut grass and even weeds can be used as mulch (everything that directly covers the ground).
Microbiological preparations are an important element of health care. They contain agronomically beneficial effective microorganisms (EM). A huge number of bacteria (up to 100 kg per hundred square meters) live in clean, non-poisoned soil. The division of bacteria occurs very quickly, they do not live long (20-30 minutes), and after death, their protein mass goes to plants as food. The more bacteria in the soil, the more humus in it - food for plants. That is why OZ widely uses preparations of specially bred effective microorganisms (EM preparations). Varieties of EM preparations are used not only to increase yields, but also to protect plants from diseases and harmful insects.
The promotion and application of agricultural technology of OZ is a noble task, since it allows you to preserve and increase soil fertility, grow a full-fledged environmentally friendly crop and significantly increase it while reducing labor costs.