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Video: Perennial Chrysanthemums: Varieties And Cultivation
Chrysanthemum is Japan's favorite flower. Part 3
Read the previous part of the article: Annual chrysanthemums: varieties and cultivation
Korean chrysanthemum in Pavlovsky park
Perennial chrysanthemums are one of the leading cultures of decorative industrial floriculture. Natives of South-East Asia, they have spread throughout the world as a result of huge selection work. Complex hybrids of Indian chrysanthemum are distinguished by a wide variety of shapes and colors.
The morphological diversity of inflorescences has no analogues in other plant genera. Terry varieties consist of several hundred reed flowers, and the color range includes all shades from boiling white to deep purple.
The main feature of perennial chrysanthemums is that they are short-day plants. The reduction in the light period facilitates the formation and formation of inflorescences. That is why the natural flowering of chrysanthemums occurs in the autumn, when the days are short. But if you plant an Indian chrysanthemum in the garden, it most often will not have time to bloom in our conditions. Therefore, we will consider the features of the Korean chrysanthemum, successfully blooming and wintering in the northern gardens.
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For information: the early varieties are those that bloom in August (day length 14.5-15 hours). If they are cut in December - early January, flowering can occur in May - June. But for this you need to have suitable conditions for cold storage of mother liquors and greenhouses with additional lighting in winter and spring.
For varieties with an average flowering period (September - early October), the critical day length is 13-14 hours. For late varieties, it is approximately 12 hours. Some gardeners grow large-flowered early-flowering varieties outdoors: Gazelle, Evelyn Bush (white); Southdown Pink, Rose Ader, Diplomat (pink); Olympiad, Hooks Bronze (yellow); Escort (red) and few others.
The attraction of Korean specific chrysanthemums made it possible to single out a group of varieties that are more resistant to low temperatures in open ground. Further, this group began to be called - Korean, or "Dubok" - in the form of leaves resembling oak.
Modern varieties of Korean chrysanthemums are the most resistant to adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases. At the same time, they are very decorative, reproduce well vegetatively. These are perennial rhizome plants with a height of 25-100 cm, depending on the variety. Bushes are spherical, hemispherical, columnar, compact or spreading, depending on the flexibility of the shoots. Inflorescences 3-9 cm in diameter, often with a pleasant aroma.
The color scheme, like other groups of chrysanthemums, there are also two-tone varieties. The abundance of flowering depends on the variety and age (with proper agricultural technology), it can range from several tens to several hundred inflorescences per bush. At the same time, the bush can increase its decorative effect within 5 years without transplanting. Then it should be divided and transplanted into new places.
For a balanced nutrition, it is recommended to use long-acting fertilizers when planting in a hole: AVA in granules with an effect of three years, AVA with nitrogen in powder, valid for one year. The minuscule dose (5 g, or 1 tsp) makes the use of AVA beneficial and convenient. If you do not use long-acting fertilizers, during the season you need to feed chrysanthemum bushes with Kemira lux or flower every two weeks at the rate of 50-100 g per 1 m² of the flower garden area.
Chrysanthemum requirements for growing conditions
Chrysanthemum is relatively thermophilic, therefore, a place for planting is chosen protected from cold winds, sunny, with fertile soil and good drainage, and a low level of groundwater. The best soils are loamy, easily permeable, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 6.0–6.5. Peatlands require liming and organic enrichment.
Chrysanthemum regrowth begins in late April - early May, active growth occurs at + 13 … + 15 ° С. The optimum temperature for the formation of inflorescences is + 15 … + 17 ° С. A favorable combination of temperature and illumination is important: at high illumination, plants tolerate elevated temperatures well.
At low night temperatures, even a short day will not help flowering - it may not come. The average flowering time of the variety is 32–40 days. By combining varieties in terms of flowering time, color and productivity, you can significantly extend the flowering time of chrysanthemums.
The need for water varies depending on the phase of development. During rooting, cuttings need a moist substrate (80–90% moisture). During the period of shoot growth, 60–70% soil moisture is required. During budding, the need for moisture decreases by a third or a quarter, towards the end of flowering it decreases significantly.
Planting depends on the conceived composition, the power of the vegetative mass of the variety. The distance between the bushes can be 50–80 cm, for young plants - 25x25 cm. The planting technique is usual: put AVA granules in the hole, pour water and plant a bush in the gruel in any weather, compact the planting and mulch the planting to retain moisture.
Flowering begins in August and continues until frost, which does not damage the buds, and if the heat returns, flowering continues. Rains and fogs damage white varieties. The most resistant to bad weather are golden yellow and orange-red varieties.
At the end of the growing season, the bushes are cut to a hemp height of 10 cm, the fallen leaves are removed. Preventively, you can treat plants and soil around a 0.8% copper oxychloride solution. You can try to root cut shoots in water or in the ground, you can do the same with stems from a purchased bouquet.
Shelter for the winter consists in mulching with earth with sand in a layer of up to 20 cm, spruce branches or sawdust are placed on top. Leaves are not suitable as a shelter: they crumble, undermine and can destroy chrysanthemums. In the spring, additional shelter is removed, the earth is slightly loosened and young shoots are expected to appear, after which the mound of earth can be leveled.
Reproduction. In the spring, as the shoots grow, it is convenient to cut off a part of the overgrown bush with a shovel and plant it in a new place. This method is known as dividing the bush. The main breeding method is green cuttings. As the shoots grow in the ground and harden, cuttings 6–8 cm long are cut and rooted in water or substrate. Such pruning serves for better plant tillering and more abundant flowering.
For the reliability of preserving the variety in the fall, the best bushes are dug up, cut off, transplanted into larger pots. Add AVA powder with nitrogen to the potting mix. When the plants take root, they are transferred to a cool, bright place, where they are kept at + 4 … + 6 ° С, watering moderately, until early February.
At the beginning of February, the pots are transferred to a lighter and warmer room, watered abundantly, and a week later they give the first nitrogen dressing (20 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water). February - April is considered the best time for cuttings. May cuttings do not have time to form a bush well and give even flowering. The substrate for cuttings needs a lightweight, not compacted when watering (a mixture of turf, leafy soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1 with the addition of peat, perlite). The upper part of the substrate in a box or pot is made from a mixture of equal parts of peat and perlite (or sand) 2 cm high.
The substrate is slightly compacted, watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. Cuttings 8–10 cm long are cut from mother plants with a sharp knife, the lower leaves are removed and planted under a peg to a depth of 1.5 cm, compacting the substrate around the stem. The distance between the cuttings is 4–5 cm. At home, cuttings are planted in pots, covered with a transparent bag, or the pot is placed in a bag, which is more convenient for airing. The distance of the film from the tops of the plants should be at least 10 cm. The usual care for green cuttings.
Airing the cuttings daily, shading them from the direct sun is very important for the successful rooting of chrysanthemums. The optimum air temperature is + 18 … + 20 ° С, the soil temperature is 1–2 degrees higher. Every day you need to remove yellowing and decaying leaves. The rooting time is 15–18 days in February, and 10–14 days in March – April.
Rooted cuttings are more actively ventilated, then the shelter is removed and planted in separate cups. After adaptation and reaching a height of 15 cm, the first pinching of the growth point is made. The second pinching is done when the lateral shoots reach a length of 10-12 cm. The February cuttings have time to pinch 2-3 times, the April cuttings 1-2 times. Pinching forms a compact bush with a large number of shoots with buds, but at the same time postpones flowering time. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of the season and the time of cuttings, otherwise you can not wait for flowering.
If you use fast-acting fertilizers, then young plants are fed every two weeks, alternating organic and mineral fertilizing at a concentration of 0.2% (Kemira, Uniflor-growth). Hardening of plants before planting in open ground begins 1.5–2 months before. Plants are taken out on loggias, terraces, balconies, covering them with film or lutrasil at night. Chrysanthemums are planted in open ground at the end of May.
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Perennial Chrysanthemum Varieties
Varieties (about 20) for the middle lane were bred mainly by breeders of Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia. For the Northwest, they need to be checked in local conditions. In general, you should choose zoned varieties grown in local nurseries. Here are some of them:
Aurora - height up to 70 cm, inflorescences are red on top, yellow below. Blooms in September.
Snow White - height 55 cm, compact, hemispherical. Terry inflorescences, flat, up to 6 cm in diameter.
Bouquet - 80 cm high and more, inflorescence 8 cm in diameter, terry, crimson; bloom from late August to October.
Wee Vili is a compact spherical shrub up to 50 cm high. Pink double inflorescences up to 5 cm in diameter. Blooms from mid-August to October.
Many years of cultivation practice tested the following varieties in the North-West: Cinderella, Yantar, Alyonushka, Dreams, Golden Autumn and others (variety plot of the Taitsy state farm, control and seed experimental station).
Chrysanthemums are amazing flowers loved by many, grown since antiquity. No wonder the Eastern wisdom says: "If you want to be happy all your life, grow chrysanthemums."
Chrysanthemum is Japan's favorite flower:
• Part 1: A brief excursion into the history of chrysanthemums
• Part 2: Annual chrysanthemums: varieties and cultivation
• Part 3: Perennial chrysanthemums: varieties and cultivation