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Video: How To Create An Artificial Reservoir At A Summer Cottage
Creation of artificial reservoirs at summer cottages and country estates
Ponds! What could be more romantic on the site? The soft willow branches with long narrow silvery leaves caress the water like fingers. The multicolored spots of nymphs (water lilies), like stars, are reflected on the dark surface of the pond.
Over the long dark green lanceolate leaves, the irises proudly released their exquisite arrows: yellow - marsh, blue - Siberian.
The dragonfly, a tireless insect hunter, carefully examines the thickets of driving plants with a quiet crackling of wings. Here and calamus marsh, and umbelliferae, calla, marigold, troleus.
I slowly walk around the pond along a narrow path. In the emerald thickets of Elodea, the side of the crucian carp flashed like heavy gold. It's time to feed the fish. And a lot of algae has grown - it is necessary to clean it. But that's tomorrow. Today - a bathhouse. Steam up - and into the pond. The water is clean, fresh, but the main thing is its own.
Do you need a pond on the site? Of course, if space permits - yes! Water brings harmony and peace. The microclimate of the site is leveled. Birds flock to the water. In addition, the range of plants is significantly expanding. With the availability of funds and imagination, you can make various water attractions, fountains, waterfalls from the pond. Stone water slides will make the water "sing". And there is nothing better than watching the running water.
How to do all this? Let's immediately divide the plots into two main types. The first type is a low damp area with close groundwater. The soil can be either loamy or peaty. In this case, the pond is the main element of the drainage system. Prefabricated drainages are introduced into the pond, crushed stone filters are made, and if possible, waste drainage is also made to remove excess water from the pond.
Where to begin? We must choose a place for the pond. It should be, if possible, in the lowest place of the site. The rounded soft shapes give the pond a natural look. The depth of the pond is selected depending on its size (but not less than 1 m). The slope of the banks is 25-30 °. Moreover, it is recommended to make them using the so-called "spiral" method - as in open pits. The width of the spiral step is 20-30 cm, the height is 10-15 cm, respectively. After making the body of the pond, we fill it up - we lay crushed stone, as a rule, granite. In peat bogs, it can be laid on a limestone pad. Crushed stone is laid in a uniform layer of 15-20 cm, and then smoothed out from above with granite screening.
The bottom of the pond is made two-level as possible. One part of 1.0-1.5 m is for aquatic plants that need warm water, the other part is deeper - 2.0-2.5 m. If the small part must be covered with rubble, then the deep part can be left with partial filling. This will be a "silt pit". It is needed for the development of useful microflora in the pond, as well as a wintering place for crucians. Crucian carp is the most unpretentious fish. They feed on mosquito larvae and other aquatic animals, including tadpoles. They love the bun. They hibernate in silt. They do not require any additional maintenance - no winter feeding, no punching of breathing holes. An interesting feature was noticed - the larger the pond, the larger the crucian carp.
In summer, crucian carp is caught on a roll, but in autumn it prefers a worm. From a pond with an area of 15-25 m? and a depth of up to 2 m, you can catch 5-10 kg of fish a year at least the size of a palm. Of course, provided that the wife (husband) does not mind, and the mother-in-law (mother-in-law) issues a license.
The second type of pond is on dry areas and easily draining soils - sands. Such soils do not hold water, and the groundwater in such places is deep enough. What to do? In this case, various geomembranes are used.
Earlier, in the old days, the so-called " clay castle " was made. A layer of clay with straw 15-20 cm thick was laid on the prepared base (the method is the same as for the pond of the first type). Then a layer of burlap or reed mats was made and another layer of clay was laid. The clay was then covered with a layer of rubble and screenings. But in our time, many new modern materials have appeared. These are various geotextiles, rubber and PVC membranes (films). All these materials are placed on a specially prepared and sand-filled base in the following way.
On loose soils, the shape of the banks is
reinforced with geotextiles. Geotextile is a non-woven synthetic material that allows water to pass through, does not interfere with the development of the roots of trees and grass, but restrains the movement of soil. Then, while slowly filling the pond with water, the edges of the membrane are carefully laid and fixed with sand and stones.
When designing and building a pond on an artificial waterproofing membrane, many parameters must be taken into account. First of all, provide for a system for draining surface storm and spring waters into the pond. If the pond is also intended for swimming, then the place of entry into the water should be made so as not to damage the thin film of waterproofing. In some cases, it is necessary to provide a system of aeration and water purification.
To create a good pond in your favorite garden is a laborious and difficult task, therefore, it is probably better to entrust the design and installation of all its systems to specialists.