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Video: An Artificial Reservoir On The Site ?! Easy
What type of reservoir to choose and how to build it
An artificial reservoir on the site - this will be discussed today. We will try to talk about the types of reservoirs, their placement and design, about the vegetation around the reservoir and in it. And also how to connect and place it all in a garden or summer cottage.
Why is this topic relevant now? Yes, simply because you will not surprise anyone with an alpine slide, an elegant flower bed, an aristocratic rabatka or a boring, even ideally even and bright green lawn. Water bodies are a new direction in decorating and enriching a summer cottage. Even a small pond is unlikely to leave anyone indifferent. And if you want to amaze neighbors and friends, and to give yourself a lot of pleasure, then it's time to get to work.
First of all, try to decide for yourself: why exactly do you need a reservoir on the site? After all, the very development of a technical solution and the implementation of the outlined plans will depend on this.
It is worth knowing that all reservoirs can be roughly ranked into two large groups: these are functional reservoirs and decorative reservoirs. From these terms, we think everyone understands that functional reservoirs, in addition to "decoration", perform a whole series or one specific function, but decorative reservoirs will only give us aesthetic pleasure. They have no other function anymore.
Decorative reservoirIs the closest relative of the alpine slide. In the same way as when creating it, when building a reservoir, you need to choose a certain piece of land and, in fact, say goodbye to it, because now there will be a completely different structure in this place, which can stand for decades.
Ponds intended for decoration are usually located in the very center of the site. Often they are combined with artificial waterfalls or cascades of simpler design, which, taken together, form something resembling a rocky river or a pond, overgrown with vegetation typical for such a site of nature and filled with clean water, it is good here if it is renewed naturally.
Functional reservoirs- these are usually more serious and complex structures. Their construction requires considerable physical and material costs, as well as partly large territories. Most often, functional reservoirs are located in city parks and squares, or on solid-sized personal plots, in private estates. Usually these are large and deep ponds with live fish, which, if desired, can be caught there with a fishing rod; sometimes these are gorgeous pools, along the edges of which perennial crops or trees are planted. In such pools, you can move by boat, they are often decorated with floating fountains with automatically turned on lights at night.
Nowadays, it seems that only the thickness of the wallet can limit the plans of the owner of the site. The most daring ideas can be brought to life, and the ideas themselves are often divided into four large types:
The first type is purely decorative reservoirs
. Sometimes the emphasis is on water and its expression, so in this type of reservoir, you can do without the use of aquatic plants. It was not by chance that we put this type of reservoir as the first number, because sometimes it is very simple to build it. All we need is a
plastic bowlthe optimal size for the site, which can now be purchased at any specialty store. The bowl is placed in a pit previously dug according to its dimensions and then filled with water. When choosing a bowl, remember that its large volume also requires a much larger volume of water, and this, in turn, promises new costs for its frequent replacement, especially in those reservoirs that are illuminated by the sun for most of the day. Here everything happens by analogy with an aquarium.
Naturally, this version of the reservoir would look too primitive if we did not use some decorative elements to decorate it. Here the choice is quite large. The edge of the pond bowl is often hidden under various decorative elements: it can be, for example, multi-colored pebbles, any pebbles, or simple and undemanding plants when leaving, or even lawn grass.
Water bodies of the
second type include
more complex architectural structures., which require several large investments of physical forces and material costs. Here the main emphasis is placed on the use of aquatic plants, although it is not necessary to plant only expensive crops. You can get by with cheaper and more affordable crops. And the base of the reservoir is a bowl, you can also buy a plastic one, which will further reduce the cost of the design.
However, if you have already decided to use aquatic plants, then you need to calculate the depth of the reservoir. It should have smooth transitions, gradually deepening. As you know, most aquatic plants will feel good only at shallow depths, often not exceeding twenty centimeters. Professionals call this depth the zone of life and always give it a place when designing a reservoir. Most often, this so-called life zone occupies about 40-45% of the total area of the reservoir. If this area of shallow water is further increased, then this can then negatively affect the general condition of the reservoir and the crops growing in it. After all, the water exchange in it, most likely, will be insufficient, stagnation will occur, and vegetation may begin to die.
Ideally, as noted above, the life zone should smoothly transition from shallow water to depth. And the deep zone most often in the right reservoirs is about 55-60%, but in no case should it be less than 35%, even if the maximum depth there is only one meter.
Having a deep zone in your pond will help keep the water temperature at an optimal level, even in extreme heat. But in winter, such a reservoir, most likely, will not freeze to the bottom, which will allow most aquatic plants to survive in it.
Recently, it became possible not only to buy ready-made bowls of reservoirs, but also to use a special insulating film to create them
, which is simply laid on the bottom of the dug pit. This is just a godsend for summer residents, because it greatly facilitates the work of creating a reservoir on your site. However, such a material is more suitable for decorative ponds than for functional ones.
The very principle of making a reservoir using this film is quite simple. After the pit is dug to its bottom and the film is laid. True, in order to avoid damage to it, it is necessary to rid the bottom of the future reservoir of any sharp and stabbing objects, and even better - to sprinkle it with a layer of sand, on which a special film will lie, like on a pillow. You can fix it like this: place the ends of the film in the recesses that are dug along the boundaries of the pit. Usually it is enough that they are 12-15 cm deep.
The film itself has different thicknesses, but the materials from which it is made are always the same - butyl rubber, which gives elasticity, and PVC, which prevents water from seeping.
To correctly calculate the amount of film you need, you should use the simplest formula: the width of the film and its length should be at least two depths of the reservoir. But even if you make a mistake, then a big trouble will not happen, this film is so versatile that it can be easily glued to each other using ordinary rubber glue.
After the film is laid, it is necessary to leave a little free panel and fix it on the bank, pressing down with heavy decorative stones or turf with lawn grass.
The next type of reservoir provides for the creation of rather complex structures that will allow you to use the reservoir not only as a banal decoration of your site, but also as a
mini-pool, for example. Often, such pools are no longer based on fragile plastic, but on durable and strong concrete bowls, which are finished with a waterproofer from the inside. Naturally, such structures are much more difficult to create than from plastic or from film. And digging a pit under such a bowl is not an easy task, it will take a lot of effort, because the minimum depth of the reservoir should be more than two meters.
And, finally, the
most difficult type of reservoir -
with living inhabitants … Most often these are fish intended for fishing or for decorating a reservoir, for example, goldfish. Sometimes turtles or miniature frogs are used, which are able to turn the creation of human hands into a body of water, indistinguishable from a natural pond. At the heart of such a reservoir is a pit much larger than the previous ones, having one and a half to two meters of depth. The great depth will not allow the water to freeze completely in winter, and this will save the fish living in it. To maintain such a volume of water in a habitable condition, it is necessary to equip the reservoir with additional purification and filtration means.
So, we discussed the types of reservoirs, and you have chosen the best option for yourself. Now let's talk
about the intricacies of the structureeach type of reservoir. Let's start with the design of the water surface. The most affordable option is the use of shallow water or plants floating on the surface. For example, the ideal option would be to use calamus, which, not only will give a unique and at the same time natural look to your reservoir, but can also serve as a medicinal plant. It is suitable for almost any body of water, however, like marsh iris and arrowhead, as well as a nymphaean egg capsule or water lily.
Maybe not everyone knows that
water liliesused to decorate artificial reservoirs already in the days of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Water lilies are good because they have a rather powerful creeping rhizome that is resistant to hypothermia and can withstand very high positive temperatures, as well as they have large picturesque leaves and an amazingly beautiful flower that strikes with its freshness.
The egg capsule is no less common aquatic plant
… Such a miracle came to us from Central Europe. Without exaggeration, this plant can be called one of the most beautiful perennial rhizome plants, which have rather large and pleasantly smelling yellow flowers. The egg capsules can easily overwinter in your reservoir, the main thing is that the water does not freeze to the ground. If the depth of the pond does not allow for such a wintering, then she will calmly spend the winter under any shelter right on the loose soil of your garden.
Calamus marsh came to us from America, it has pleasant-looking flowers that radiate an unusual aroma. Even in the harsh conditions of Central Russia and even more northern regions, calamus feels good. It grows well even when placed in pots or boxes, which are then placed at the bottom of the reservoir.
I would like to conclude this article with one piece of advice. It is clear: in order to build a full-fledged reservoir, which then will surely decorate the territory of your site, you must have a significant area free from plantings. If you do not have such an opportunity and are very fond of harvesting vegetables - cucumbers, tomatoes and other very useful fruits, and you really want to have a reservoir on your site, then you can try to combine, as they say, business with pleasure. To do this, you need to build a reservoir, and then plant around it not "useless" ornamental plants for your household and stomach, but quite edible vegetable crops. Thus, you will decorate the space around the reservoir, and get a harvest of vegetables, which for the most part adore wet places. And their gorgeous leaves and quite decorative flowers will serve as a good decoration for the reservoir until autumn.
Researcher, Candidate of Science, State Scientific Institution VNIIS im. I. V. Michurina of the Russian Agricultural Academy, Scientific Secretary of ANIRR
Photo by Viktor Abramov and Alexey Antsiferov