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Formation Of Actinidia And Biochemical Composition
Formation Of Actinidia And Biochemical Composition

Video: Formation Of Actinidia And Biochemical Composition

Video: Formation Of Actinidia And Biochemical Composition
Video: 8 POWERFUL HOMEMADE ROOTING HORMONES| Natural Rooting Stimulants for Gardening 2023, March

Read the previous part. ← Planting actinidia

Formation of actinidia


The yield of hybrid plants depends on the way the plant is formed and its size, and can range from 10-12 kg to 50-60 kg or more. The bush method, as a rule, provides a good overwintering of the plant, but forms a low yield.

Actinidia hybrid varieties are characterized by strong shoot growth, which thickens the crown of the plant, so constant annual pruning is required. The main pruning is carried out in the fall after the leaves fall or at the first frost. During pruning, vegetative and vegetative-generative branches are reduced to 30-40 cm.

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When pruning, all dry and broken branches, as well as thin and overgrown branches are also removed. Fruit branches remain on the plant for three years.

In addition, the development of the plant must be monitored throughout the vegetative period, timely pinching of the shoots, laying or tying them horizontally in order to accelerate the formation of generative shoots, the laying of flower buds. As a result of these operations, the plant may enter the fruiting mode earlier or the future yield on already fruiting actinidia will increase.


Generative vegetative shoots of actinidia

At the same time, during the autumn pruning, it is best to harvest cuttings for further reproduction. At this time, the plant is in a state of organic dormancy and has the maximum amount of accumulated nutrients. Therefore, cuttings harvested at this time have the maximum percentage of rooting.

The period of organic dormancy in actinidia is very short, therefore, in the presence of a warm room or a winter garden, cuttings can be rooted from the beginning of January. After a harsh winter, it is better to carry out additional pruning after the dissolution of the plants - in May, early June, when it is already clear how the plant has wintered, and there is no longer the expiration of the spring season.

Supports for growing actinidia


Long-term supports for actinidia

The productive potential of plants of hybrid varieties of actinidia can be realized only when grown on strong and long-term supports, which are built depending on the planned method of crown formation. The simplest support is a wire stretched in 3-4 rows, fixed on iron or asbestos-cement pillars 2-2.2 m high.

The skeleton of the plant is formed by a garter, pinching, cutting of individual branches within three to four years, which by the age of ten turns into a tree up to 2.5-3 m high with a trunk thickness of up to 4-7 cm and a crown flat along the wire.

The best support for plants of hybrid varieties of actinidia is the "T" -shaped trellis, when two rows of wire are pulled on a horizontal beam on each side. A plant growing on this support forms a kind of tent during its development and itself covers its roots, which creates optimal conditions for development.

Actinidia has no obvious pests and enemies on European territory, therefore, there is no need to use chemical remedies, which means that the fruits of actinidia are an environmentally friendly product, although many gardeners complain about the increased interest of cats in them, attracted by the smell of plants. To get rid of this, it is necessary to plant spicy plants near them - oregano, valerian, lemon balm, etc.

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Reproduction of actinidia


Actinidia tree at the age of 12-15 years

Actinidia is propagated by seed and vegetative methods. The seed method is used in the acclimatization of plants to new conditions and in breeding work when developing new varieties. It should be borne in mind that the seeds retain the ability to germinate for up to one year. At the same time, they should not be allowed to dry out; they also require stratification.

The easiest way to do this is to sow freshly harvested seeds into a box with garden soil to a depth of 0.5 cm, cover this box with plastic wrap and store with the onset of frost in the basement at a temperature of + 2 … + 5 ° С. When it gets warmer, the box is taken out and placed in the shade. Already at a temperature of + 12 … + 15 ° C, the seeds begin to germinate together. If necessary, in the phase of 4-5 leaves, they can be planted. Young plants are planted in a permanent place in two years.

The sex of new plants is determined at the first flowering by the structure of their flowers; it remains for the entire life of the plant. It should be noted that the number of male plants among those grown from seeds can be from 50 to 90% of the total.

Actinidia can be propagated vegetatively by green, growing and lignified cuttings. The easiest way, and with the least cost and effort, is to propagate them with lignified cuttings, which are best harvested during the autumn pruning period. In this case, the best cuttings are cut from fruit branches located on the southern side of the plants, that is, they have received more sun, and, therefore, have a larger supply of food and better ripened eyes.

The very order and process of rooting is no different from rooting cuttings of grapes or other plants. But at the same time, it is necessary to clearly navigate where the bottom is, and where is the top of the cutting: the root of the leaf blade is always below the point where the green cone emerges from under the bark.

Biochemical composition of fruits of species, varieties and hybrids of actinidia

Variety Harvest per bush, kg Dry matter,% The amount of sugars,% Acidity,% Ascorbic acid, mg / g Berry weight, g Carotene, mg
Kolomikta until 3 4.9-9.8 1.3-2.3 530-1430 2-4
Arguta Up to 5-10 150-200 5-7
Purple 150-200
September Up to 7.5 20.5 18 0.5 182.5 7-10
Purpurova sadova 20-28 16.4 9.3 1.1 110 8.7-11
Kiev hybrid 16 20 ten 0.8 140 13-18
Kiev large-fruited 20.9 10.8 0.8 146 12-19
Curly 25 13.3 0.7 114 4-7.5
Rome 10-12 25.1 13.2 0.9 114.1 5-8 0.6
Zagadkova 10-12 21.6 11.1 1.1 99.2 9-11 1.5
Nadia 14-16 20.0 9.6 0.9 112.4 9-12 2.1
Perlina Sadu 6-7 20.3 8.4 0.7 70 5-7 6.5
Original 10-12 25.5 10.2 0.45 123 14-16 1.6
Rubinova ten 19.8 8.5 0.6 109 8-10 1.8
Kraevskaya yielding 20-24 17.2 8.6 0.45 130.2 6-8 2.9
Rosehip 0.2-3.5 22-37 8.1-11.6 0.7-2.6 500-3000 1.5-5
Grapes 10-25 0.5-1.7 6 1.6-3.9

Is it worth the candle?


Harvest actinidia from the author's garden

Due to the favorable ratio of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, sugars, glycosides and tannins, the actinidia fruits have therapeutic and dietary value. The biologically active substances of actinidia are well preserved in frozen or dried fruits and, when they are ground with sugar, in raw jam.

Compare the biochemical composition of the fruits of actinidia, rose hips and grapes.

And in conclusion, I would like to quote once again the words of the great Russian breeder IV Michurin: “… there is always a place for actinidia in each of the most closely planted gardens, under the trees, letting them go over apple and pear trees, which with the slightest observation and direction of the vines never will not constrain or damage trees."

I wish success to all gardeners who are starting to grow this interesting and useful plant in their garden!

If you have a desire to receive information about actinidia, about its breeding, please call (Lida): (8-10-375) 01561-574-56, mob. tel.: 00375-444814998, email: [email protected] - Viktor Ivanovich Guzenko.

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