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Growing Tomatoes: Planting, Shaping And Feeding
Growing Tomatoes: Planting, Shaping And Feeding

Video: Growing Tomatoes: Planting, Shaping And Feeding

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Complete Comprehensive Guide to Growing Tomatoes - Care, fertilizing, staking, pruning, and MORE! 2023, February
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Read part 1. What is a vegetable hybrid and where does it come from

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

What is a heterotic tomato hybrid

It probably makes sense to dwell a little on the explanation of such a concept as a heterotic hybrid. Gardeners often ask questions about him. When crossing some varieties of any culture, F1 hybrids often differ from the parental forms by more vigorous growth, better vitality, higher productivity, resistance to diseases and to sharp weather fluctuations. This property of the first generation hybrids is called heterosis.

Heterosis is the property of the first generation hybrids to surpass the parents or the best parental form in terms of certain biological and economically valuable traits and properties, in terms of their severity. The phenomenon of heterosis (heterozygosis, hybrid vigor, hybrid vigor) was discovered in 1770 by the associate botanist of the Russian Academy of Sciences Josef Gottlit Kelreiter.

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We will not go into the theory of this phenomenon, only for ourselves we will draw the following conclusions: heterosis enhances the stability of genetic systems in changing environmental conditions. Heterosis can manifest itself according to one or several traits, often in one way or another determining the viability of a plant or its accelerated development.

Thus, heterosis can manifest itself both in the general habit of a plant and in the formation of individual organs - roots, root crops, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruits. Sometimes it manifests itself in biochemical characteristics (the content of dry substances, sugars, fats, vitamins, etc.), often in changes in physiological characteristics (increased cold resistance, drought resistance, improved keeping quality during storage, general resistance to diseases, etc.).

It is clear that heterotic F1 hybrids will better withstand stress. The question is often asked: “Why does the same hybrid in different years have different properties”. From what I said above, the answer suggests itself: different weather (external conditions) affect. I note that plants of the same variety, grown in different light zones, may differ from each other in morphological characteristics and biological properties.

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True, sometimes it depends on the quality of the hybrid itself, when not everything turned out well for the breeder. Typically, world-class breeding companies have ten to two dozen competitive, reliable hybrids with a good reputation for reliability in their product range. I have already noted that each summer cottage has its own microclimate, which means that the selection of reliable hybrids should take into account their own capabilities. It is necessary to create appropriate conditions for plants. It has now been proven that tomato plants of various varieties have features of growth and development in conditions of long daylight hours, which is important for our light zone.

I will show this by the example of growing cluster-type tomatoes, their reaction to external conditions. Now the most popular types of tomatoes among summer residents: beef, cluster, cherry - Dutch, Japanese and Israeli selection - these are the most reliable and high-quality hybrids. Growing each type of tomato has its own characteristics. Within the framework of one article, I do not have the opportunity to dwell on the features of all types of tomatoes, especially since there are also varietal differences, and this is sometimes very important when you choose a hybrid. I will only note that the cluster type of tomatoes is cluster tomatoes. And now, briefly about their features, although, of course, there are general principles in tomato agricultural technology.

If the soil in the greenhouse is not warmed up well enough, then the fruiting of the tomato shifts by a week or more - this applies to all types of tomato. The soil warms up very slowly in spring, and even when the air temperature in the greenhouse in March in sunny weather reaches 30 ° C, the soil temperature in the root layer barely reaches 15 … 16 ° C, which negatively affects the development of the plant. A favorable soil temperature for plants allows the formation of ridges to be maintained.

Timely warmed-up soil avoids a number of diseases associated with root and root rot. Gardeners should know that freezing the greenhouse soil in winter only helps in the fight against pests (whitefly, aphids), but does not destroy fungal spores in the soil and on plant debris. Nematodes, hibernating tick females and some other pests also remain unharmed. In the spring in the greenhouse, the most reliable means is steaming, while all types of pathogens are destroyed. And do not forget to steam the seedling soil - it is not difficult, but the effect will be good.

Growing tomato seedlings

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

What should you pay attention to when growing seedlings? Seeds should be sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm in boxes or cassettes filled with nutrient mixture. To get friendly, uniform shoots, sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of light porous material (perlite, peat, vermiculite) on top. For friendly germination of seeds, it is necessary to maintain the soil temperature around 23 … 24 ° C around the clock. After the emergence of seedlings, the air temperature during the day should be at the level of 22 … 23 ° C.

Seedlings dive into pots with peat or sod soil after 12-14 days, while at the same time discarding weak plants. The pick should be carried out in a well-moistened, warm substrate (18 … 20 ° С). The optimal size of a seedling pot for a tomato is 0.6–0.8 liters. There is no consensus on hardening seedlings. It is known that hardening shifts the fruiting period by two weeks, but the seedlings are more resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions. This technique is necessary only in the case of planting tomatoes in unheated greenhouses, when the probability of frost after planting seedlings is high.

If hardened, then it is better to do it according to the following technique. Hardening of seedlings should be done in order to reduce the risk of damage to the plant by low temperatures. Hardening is carried out in two stages: first, the seedlings are hardened, and then the seedlings. The air temperature for 5-7 days after the emergence of seedlings is maintained at 13 … 15 ° C during the day, and 7 … 9 ° C at night. Soil temperature should not fall below 12 … 14 ° С.

After hardening the seedlings and before hardening the seedlings, the temperature is maintained at 21 … 23 ° С on a sunny day, 17 … 19 ° С on a cloudy day, and at night 10 … 12 ° С. Seedlings are hardened at a temperature not lower than 10 … 12 ° С during the day and 4-5 ° С at night. For heated film greenhouses, the seedling age can vary within 35-45 days, and for unheated greenhouses - 50-60 days. On cloudy days in the greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature at 20 ° C during the day and 17 ° C at night, on sunny days, respectively, 22 ° C and 18 ° C.

The planting scheme of seedlings is as follows: in a row between plants, the distance is 50-55 cm, and between rows - 80 cm. 55-60 days pass from the moment of fruit setting to harvest. The optimum conditions for the pollination process are a temperature of 25 ° C and a humidity of 65-75%. Pollination needs help: industrial greenhouses use bumblebees, mechanical vibrators, hormones. In amateur greenhouses, gardeners usually tap the stem of the plant in the morning during flowering. True, hormonal preparations have already appeared on the market.

However, I want to note that not all hybrids are resistant to hormone treatment and do not change the shape of the fetus, by the way, perhaps some amateur experimenters changed the shape of the fetus for this reason, and not just because of the abnormal weather. Some gardeners are faced with the "problem" of pinching, and for this reason they buy dwarf plants, which are planted in a good tall greenhouse, and the result is often negative. I must say right away: indeterminate or semi-indeterminate hybrids should be planted in a normal greenhouse (2-2.5 m tall).

No need to choose varieties by height - a tomato is not a fishing rod. Its height depends on the number of brushes on the plant. In our seasonal greenhouses, when maintaining a tomato crop in short circulation, you can expect to receive 6-7 brushes. Formation of plants into one stem with the removal of lateral shoots allows to obtain high quality products with a high yield of excellent fruits.

When growing tomatoes on a plant, you can leave up to 18 leaves in the spring and up to 24 in the summer. At one time, it is necessary to remove no more than 2-3 leaves. Leaves must be removed completely, without leaving "hemp" on the plant. Removing the leaves contributes to better airing of the plants, which means that the risk of fungal infection is reduced, as well as the stimulation of fruit ripening. Leaves should be removed weekly, preferably in sunny weather. Twisting the tops of the plants is best done in the afternoon, when the plants lose their turgor and the likelihood of plant breakage is reduced. As well as removing the leaves, clockwise winding of the tops should be done weekly.

It is necessary to pinch the tops of the main tomato stem 40-50 days before the elimination of the culture, in this case, you can get very large fruits from the upper brushes. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to systematically remove lateral shoots (stepchildren) with a length of no more than 5-7 cm, since their strong growth leads to significant crop losses. An important factor in the microclimate is the relative humidity of the air. Its optimal range for tomato is 70-75%. Gardeners should remember this rule: the air temperature in the greenhouse can drop sharply, but in no case should it rise sharply, as this is more stressful for the plants.

Fertilizers and feeding for tomatoes

When maintaining a tomato culture, to obtain 6-7 brushes, it is enough to add humus and mineral fertilizers to the main dressing during soil preparation, but the quality of the resulting product will not be high. What mistakes should you avoid? Making all the necessary nutrition for the entire period at one time. The fact is that fertilizers create too high a concentration of the solution in the initial period of growth and harm young plant roots.

As a rule, fertilizers are needed to the maximum extent for cluster tomatoes at a time when flowering begins on 7 brushes and fruits are poured on the first 2-3 brushes, and there are not enough nutrients for the upper brushes. As a result, there is an abortion of flowers, poor fruit set and their crushing on the upper brushes. Such fruits do not reach their optimal weight by the time of harvest. To avoid this situation, it is necessary to carry out regular root dressing.

The composition of the fertilizing solution recommended for growing hybrids is interesting, starting from the flowering of the third cluster and almost to the end of crop cultivation, proposed by the Dutch company "Rijk Zwaan". The composition of such a nutrient solution is as follows: potassium nitrate - 700 g, calcium nitrate - 500 g, magnesium nitrate - 500 g, potassium monophosphate - 250 g. Total fertilizers 1950

This amount of fertilizers (in a total of 1.95 kg) must be dissolved in 1 m? water (1 ton) with only one condition: dissolve potassium monophosphate separately in warm water and then add to a container for irrigation water that is 2/3 full. You can calculate the amount of fertilizer per 10 liter bucket of water by reducing it by 100 times. It is clear that the Dutch use this solution for drip irrigation. In amateur plantings, they can water the plants in the usual way based on the usual watering rate (according to the weather), but not more than 4 liters per plant. To maximize your yield, you need to constantly monitor plant development and maintain a balance between vegetative and generative growth. It is easier to grow those hybrids where this balance is fixed at the genetic level.

The main conclusion from the article is the same as the well-known breeder Ivan Michurin made a long time ago, who said: "The variety decides everything. " And if you make the right choice for your site, then you will not be afraid of abnormal phenomena of any year. I will not recommend any specific hybrids, I think the readers will draw their own conclusion and find for themselves exactly what they need.

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