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Soil Preparation In The Greenhouse And Feeding Regime For Growing Tomatoes
Soil Preparation In The Greenhouse And Feeding Regime For Growing Tomatoes

Video: Soil Preparation In The Greenhouse And Feeding Regime For Growing Tomatoes

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Video: How to grow Greenhouse Tomatoes 2023, February
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Read part 1. Characteristics of peat and soil preparation in the greenhouse

Nutrition and fertilization of tomato grown in greenhouses

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

The absolute content of nutrients in different organs of tomato is as follows: leaves and stems - nitrogen - 17.7, phosphorus - 5.5, potassium - 25.5, calcium - 39.2 and magnesium 4.5 g / m²; roots, respectively - 0.3, 0.9, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.06 g / m²; fruits - 18.8, 6.4, 40.2, 1.2 and 1.4 g / m², respectively, in peat soil. The lack of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil always negatively affects, first of all, in the process of forming the marketable part of the crop.

Distinguished by a high need for nutrients, the tomato also has a more powerful root system than the cucumber, better absorbs nutrients from the soil. To improve the physical properties of soils intended for growing tomatoes, rotted manure (5 kg), compost (10 kg) and straw (2 kg) are used per 1 m².

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When applying mineral fertilizers, you must first of all pay attention to the correct ratio between nitrogen and potassium. To get healthy and well-developed plants, it is necessary to increase the potassium nutrition of the tomato. The abundant nitrogen nutrition of this culture leads to a very strong development of the vegetative mass to the detriment of the formation of fruits. On humus-rich soils, nitrogen is introduced at the rate of 5 g per 1 m² only after the formation of the second or fourth cluster of fruits. If the nitrogen content in the soil is below the optimum level, then only 8 g of N per 1 m² is applied. Then the plants are fed with nitrogen every 3-4 weeks (3-6 times depending on soil fertility).

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Tomato is demanding on potassium nutrition

Before planting the seedlings, up to 25 g of K 2 O per 1 m² are introduced into the soil, and during the growing season 2-3 additional fertilizing is carried out (10 g per 1 m²). The best forms of potassium fertilizers are considered to be potassium sulfate, chlorine-free, containing magnesium, fertilizers and potassium nitrate. Tomato reacts especially negatively to chlorine. With the systematic use of magnesium-containing potassium fertilizers under the tomato, magnesium is not required for this crop. In case of signs of magnesium deficiency, the tomato is sprayed with a 0.5% solution of magnesium sulfate.

Tomato reacts positively to abundant phosphorus nutrition. Phosphorus in the form of highly concentrated fertilizers is applied depending on the content of mobile phosphates - from 10 to 40 g P 2 O 5 per 1 m². Tomato grows well on more acidic soils than cucumber, therefore liming is used only at pH (KCl) less than 5.5.

When growing tomatoes on soils rich in high-moor peat, the plants may suffer from a lack of copper, molybdenum and manganese. When signs of a deficiency of these elements appear, the plants are sprayed with appropriate salts.

Tomatoes can be grown on almost all soils, provided that the required reaction of the soil solution is maintained. The best soil is considered to be medium in texture, which has good water permeability with good microbiological activity, in which there is a slow release of nutrient reserves.

It is known that tomato plants have a highly developed root system and better absorb nutrients than cucumbers. Therefore, they can be grown in greenhouses on ordinary soils, but such soils have little water retention and often dry out. The development of the root system of tomatoes depends entirely on the structure, moisture and aeration of the soil.

growing tomatoes
growing tomatoes

For normal growth and development, the soil in greenhouses where tomatoes are grown must be enriched with organic matter. Manure is usually used as an organic fertilizer. The amount of manure should be between 30 and 60 kg / m², and more should be applied on sandy and long-used soils.

When planting tomatoes in a greenhouse after growing cucumbers, organic fertilizers should not be applied. The soil from under the cucumbers is so strongly fertilized that it can be dangerous for the subsequent cultivation of tomatoes.

When growing tomatoes, basic fertilization and feeding are also provided. With the main fertilizer, the full dose of phosphorus and the main part of the potash fertilizer are applied. During the growing season, not only the concentration of the applied solutions changes, but also the ratio of nutrients. For example, under early tomatoes at the beginning of the growing season, potassium nitrate is applied with a ratio of N: K 2 O = 1: 3.5, then, as the lighting conditions improve and the age of plants changes, a fertilizer mixture is selected with a ratio of N: K 2 O = 1: 2 or 1: 1.

Tomatoes are salt tolerant plants. Growing early tomatoes with a relatively high total salt content tends to retard vegetative growth somewhat. Tomatoes can absorb a lot of chlorine. The maximum chlorine content in greenhouse soil for tomatoes is 0.02% on air-dry soil.

Tomatoes on saline soils are stunted, dark-colored, bloom quickly and produce relatively small fruits. Tomatoes grow strongly in salt-poor soils, the plants are light colored, bloom late and have poor quality flowers. The soil under the tomatoes is usually used for two years, but it can be used longer if the plants are not damaged by diseases and pests.

Numerous calculations indicate that the cultivation of vegetable crops on high-moor peat is economically more profitable than on conventional greenhouse soils.

Read part 4. Permanent use of greenhouse soils

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