Video: Caring For Tomatoes On Grads
Tomato planting scheme depends on varietal characteristics, plant habit, planting site and methods of formation. Standard varieties in open ground are planted with 6-8 plants per 1 m².
Varieties and hybrids of the determinant and semi-determinant type in film greenhouses are planted 3-4 plants per 1m²; tall indeterminate - 2-3 plants per 1 m². The distance between the rows of plants in open ground is 60-70 cm, in film greenhouses 70-80 cm.
Correctly grown seedlings are planted straight up to the cotyledons. Humus, one tablespoon of ash and one tablespoon of superphosphate are introduced into the holes, everything is thoroughly mixed. The hole is watered with water. After planting, watering is done depending on the weather in 1-2 weeks. Plants are tied up with twine to stakes a week after planting, and in greenhouses it is better to wire trellis.
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Caring for tomatoes consists in loosening the soil, watering, hilling, feeding, forming a bush and fighting pests and diseases. The need for watering is determined by the wilting of leaves at noon. In sunny weather, the aisles after irrigation are loosened to a depth of 7-12 cm, leaving a protective zone of 6-8 cm near the stems. During fruiting, the plants should receive enough water: from 5 to 10 liters per 1 m2 once or twice every 7-10 days depending on the weather. The soil layer 25-30 cm is saturated with moisture.
Usually the first time tomato plants are fed 10-15 days after planting. It is better to combine top dressing with watering. The second time the tomatoes are fed at the beginning of fruit formation, 15-20 days after the first feeding. First, potash and calcium fertilizers are used, and at the beginning of the ripening of the fruits, ecofoska.
Once a month, foliar fertilizing is carried out with micronutrient fertilizers. Their composition is very diverse and includes elements such as boron, copper, zinc, iron, manganese. Fertilizing plants with carbon dioxide is carried out in sunny weather, pouring a bucket of diluted manure into the passage inside the greenhouse.
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In a short summer, the formation of plants is necessary, otherwise, due to the large number of stepchildren, the ripening of the fruits is lengthened, and they do not have time to reach the presentation and ripen. Without pinching, only standard ultra-early varieties can be grown. All other varieties and hybrids form. In the open field, the plants are formed into two stems. At the same time, four fruit brushes are left on the main stem and pinched the top, leaving 3 leaves; on the stepson (the shoot formed from the axil of the leaf under the first flower brush), three fruit brushes are left and also pinched, leaving 2-3 leaves.
In film greenhouses, varieties and hybrids of the indeterminate type must be formed strictly into one stem, weekly removing all stepchildren that have reached a length of 4-5 cm.Semi-determinant varieties and hybrids, when grown in a greenhouse, form into one stem, since on the main stem they form 6-8 brushes, which is quite enough for a short growing season in unheated greenhouses.
In order to speed up the filling of fruits on the second and third flower clusters and improve the flowering of subsequent ones, it is necessary to remove the first crop from the first cluster as soon as possible, without waiting for the reddening of the fruits.
To improve ventilation, illumination and reduce humidity, the lower leaves are removed three weeks after planting. However, more than 2-3 leaves cannot be removed per week in tall varieties and 1-2 in low and medium-sized varieties. By the beginning of fruit ripening on the first cluster, but not earlier, all the leaves before it must be removed. To get a good harvest, it is enough that the plant has 13-18 leaves, not counting those at the top.
When growing tomatoes, pest and disease control measures are essential. Otherwise, all the work on processing and caring for plants will be in vain. Preventive measures are most effective: compliance with the growing regime, agrotechnical measures, the choice of resistant varieties and hybrids, the destruction of diseased plants and weeds, and disinfection of seeds and greenhouses.
During the flowering of the first and third brush and before ripening of the fruits, the plants are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or treated with the "Hom" preparation (40 g per 10 l of water), 1 liter of solution per 10 m2 is consumed.
Fruit collection should be carried out regularly, every three to five days, in dry weather, when the dew subsides. Remove the brown, starting to turn pink fruits. When cold weather sets in with air temperatures below 10 ° C, all remaining red and large green fruits are harvested.
For the ripening of tomatoes, ventilated and light rooms are chosen. The temperature in them should be maintained around 20-25 ° C. Tomatoes have an interesting feature - they ripen well on cut bushes and are of excellent quality. Red fruits can be stored at a temperature of 5-10 ° C for 40-50 days, while the air humidity should be at least 80%.
After the appearance of phytophthora on potatoes in August, you should collect all the tomato fruits formed on the plant, put the green ones for ripening, although there are no obvious signs of damage on the fruits at first. In film greenhouses, the fruits are removed later: 10-15 days after the onset of the disease on the potatoes. If possible, you should avoid planting potatoes near tomato greenhouses.
N. Lapikov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, VNIIR im. N. I. Vavilova