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Video: Forcing Hyacinths, Group Of Hyacinths
Early distillation of hyacinths for holidays
Hyacinths are sweet and desirable to any girl. They will pleasantly delight and touch any heart even in summer, even a heart covered with an ice crust, and what joy they will cause if you present a warm flower in the middle of winter, carefully hidden from the cold under a thick layer of newspaper!
The hyacinths seem to have come out of a fairytale world - from there, where everything is colorful and always edible. So the flowers of hyacinth from a distance resemble the cream on the cake, they look like an appetizing candy that you just want to eat. The widest range of colors adds charm to hyacinths, today there are more than a dozen of them: pure white and milky, creamy yellow and pearl, pearl pink and deep red, sky blue and lilac.
You can choose any color that is most beloved and pleasing to the eye. The best part about hyacinths is that their flower can bloom not only in spring or in the middle of summer, dozens of competitors - cultural and hundreds of wildflowers, but even in the middle of winter. It is a kind of miracle, a miracle of nature that you can create with your own hands if you put in a little effort. And how to do this, I will tell you in this article. So, forward to the winter world of blooming hyacinth!
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All hyacinths are calm about forcing, you can even say that getting a hyacinth flower in the middle of winter at home is easy, but you need to know some subtleties.
Groups of hyacinths
All hyacinths are divided into six large groups. The main difference between one group and another lies in the color of the flowers. And the main varieties of these groups, flower growers should know so that there is no surprise later when the expected red flower suddenly turns yellow.
The first group includes cultivars (varieties) with blue flowers. Among the wide variety of varieties, we single out those that are most easy to get: Bismarck - this variety is characterized by early flowering and pale purple flowers; General Coler is also a fairly early blooming variety with double, bluish-gray flowers; Marie is an early flowering variety with interesting dark blue flowers; Miosotis - flowers of this variety bloom early and have a pale blue color.
The second group includes hyacinths with lilac flowers. The most common varieties here are: Grootvorst, which has double light lilac flowers; Distinction - its flowers are painted in a lilac-dark purple hue; Laura - the variety has a lilac-purple color of flowers; Lord Balfour - its flowers are painted in a light lilac shade and have an interesting lighter longitudinal stripe than the color of the flower itself.
The third group will appeal to any grower. The varieties of hyacinth related to it have pale pink flowers of various shades. Most often, these varieties are driven out for International Women's Day - this is Ann Marie - with a light pink color of flowers; Queen of Pinke - with attractive bright pink petals; Lady Derby - flowers of this variety are painted in pale light pink shades; Madame Haubenzak - this late-flowering variety has gorgeous semi-double and delicate pink flowers.
The fourth group of hyacinths combines varieties with red flowers. The cultivars are considered the crown of this group - the bestsellers: Victoire, which has bright pink-red flowers; Tubergens Scarlet, blooming in medium terms and having carmine-scarlet flowers; Cyclops is a medium-late flowering variety that has huge peduncles, sometimes bearing more than five dozen flowers, painted in carmine red; Jan Bose - the variety blooms very early and has very bright, magenta-red flowers.
The fifth group includes hyacinths with pure white flowers. Here, the most outstanding varieties are Arendina Arendsen, Innosans, Madame Sophie, which has snow-white double flowers.
The final group is the sixth, it included varieties, the flowers of which differ in a different range of colors - from yellow to orange. Today this is one of the most popular groups, its varieties are not easy to get, but if you succeed, then you will definitely not be disappointed.
The leaders in this group are the following cultivars: Orange Bowen - a variety whose flowers are located on long stalks and are painted in salmon-apricot color; Prince Henry - has a large flower raceme with lots of yellow flowers; Sunflower - This variety has one of the longest flowering periods and creamy yellow flowers that are unusually gentle in the middle of winter; City of Harlem - in addition to its beautiful name, this variety also has chic semi-double light yellow flowers that bloom early.
All these varieties are undoubtedly magnificent, but they would not have been in the world if it were not for the love for this flower that originated in his homeland - in Turkey. Noticing an unusual plant in Turkish markets, travelers and sales representatives bought up these flowers in hundreds, then selling them at exorbitant prices. So this flower appeared first in Holland, where by the beginning of the 18th century more than two hundred amazing cultivars were produced. In the middle of the 18th century, varieties with double flowers were in vogue, and starting from the middle of the 19th century, when Holland was already seriously engaged in the export of these plants, the fashion shifted to varieties that form ordinary flowers. It was believed that they bloom longer than double ones and have a much more pleasant aroma. Until now, the Dutch market knows no equal, and the vast majority of varieties grown in Russia are precisely Dutch cultivars.
Despite the fact that the transportation of bulbs leads to considerable costs, varieties are shipped in millions of lots in special containers that can maintain a certain temperature and the humidity required by the bulbs.
Forcing hyacinths by dates
But the issues of transportation are of little interest to us, it is much more interesting to find out how the hyacinth flowers are distilled itself. The timing is important here: if you plan to surprise and please loved ones or do a fairly profitable business, then you should time the distillation of flowers for the most important and massively celebrated holidays. Traditionally, these are February holidays - Valentine's Day and Defender of the Fatherland Day, as well as March International Women's Day and May Day.
In order for beautiful fresh flowers to become a gift for the New Year, it is necessary to start distilling from about mid-summer. During this period, hyacinth bulbs are removed from the soil and laid for 12-14 days in storage, while maintaining a temperature of about +30 o C and a humidity close to 90%.
After the first period has passed, the bulbs are transferred to another room or the temperature is lowered to +25 o C. In such conditions, they should also lie for 12-14 days. Closer to September, the temperature in the room must be lowered to a cool one, up to about +13 o С, and by the end of September - again increased by 2 … 3 o С.
Actually, the process of forcing itself begins in early October, when the bulbs that have passed all the necessary dormancy stages are planted in pots.
Forcing for the February holidays naturally starts later. Storage at different temperatures begins at the end of June and until September 1 is stored at a temperature of about 25 o C, then in September the temperature is lowered to + 17 … + 18 o C, and at the beginning of October they start planting the bulbs in pots.
The beginning of March is the third term for which hyacinths are driven out. As a rule, this is the most common term among true professionals who take a serious position in the niche of spring flower products. This is understandable, because a lot of flowers need to be prepared by March 8.
Start preparing the bulbs for forcing for this holiday by laying them in storage. At the same time, the temperature is maintained at + 25 … + 26 o C. Then, starting from October and before planting the bulbs, the temperature in the room where they are stored is lowered to 17 o C. Planting in pots begins in the first decade of October.
Forcing hyacinths for the May holidays provides for their initial storage at +30 o C, followed by a decrease in temperature to +17 o C and storage under such conditions until disembarkation, which usually begins in early November.
Hyacinth Forcing Technique
In general, it is worth mastering forcing from plants with the simplest flowers, because they are less capricious and much easier to drive out. In addition to observing the temperature and time regimes, you need to properly prepare the bulbs. It all starts with a digging, which is usually carried out 12-14 days before the usual date. After digging, the bulbs must be dried; for this it is better to use ventilation, and not fry them in the dying sun. Drying should be unhurried, usually they spend a couple of days on this, periodically turning the bulbs so that the air blow is even.
Only then can you start storing the bulbs. Careful selection of bulbs is equally important. They must be healthy, large and fully ripe. A standard bulb should have a diameter of at least 6 cm and a mass within 100 g. If you take the bulb in your hands and try to squeeze it with your fingers, you should feel resistance. If dents are formed, it means that the bulb has not matured enough, and it is better not to use it in forcing. Examine the bottom as well - there should be no signs of rot or other signs of damage on it.
After you have completed all the preparatory operations, you can proceed directly to forcing. The bulbs must be planted in the ground. To do this, you need to take clean, previously unused pots with a diameter of 9-12 cm, which are pre-filled with soil for flowers - moisture and permeable. If you can't buy soil, you can do it yourself. For this, high-moor peat and sand are mixed in a ratio of two parts to one. Some advise adding mineral fertilizers to the mixture, but based on my own experience, I will say that this is not necessary, because a well-developed and ripe bulb contains a sufficient amount of nutrients.
Before planting, a recess is made in the substrate equal to the diameter of the bulb, and it is slightly moistened. Then the onion is placed there, placing it so that the top, after adding the earth, remains on the soil surface.
After planting the bulbs, the soil is watered well enough and the pots are placed in a cool room, and if there are few of them, then a simple household refrigerator will do.
On this, the most important thing is to prevent the substrate from drying out. Ideally, it should be constantly moistened, but not flooded with water. If you do not have time for regular watering, or you are simply afraid to forget to do it, you can cover the container with the bulb after watering with a plastic bag, opening it for a couple of minutes once a day.
For distillation, the optimal temperature is comfortable for humans (+ 25 … + 26 o С), and the required humidity will not create inconvenience either, it can fluctuate in a fairly wide range, from 70 to 85%. It is easy to maintain such humidity; it is enough to put the pots on a wide tray filled with wet river sand.
The timing of forcing directly depends on the variety, for example, early cultivars will show the world their flowers in 18-20 days, while later cultivars will take a month to awaken. The earliest varieties are traditional varieties that have already become trendsetters among hyacinth lovers - Bismarck, General Kohler, Marie, Miosotis, Lord Balfour, Anne Marie, Jan Bose, Arendina Arendsen, Innosans. Late varieties, which have become no less popular due to their bright colors: Grootvorst, Distinction, Laura, Queen of Pinke, Lady Derby, Madame Haubenzack, Victoire, Tubergens Scarlet, Cyclops, Madame Sophie, Orange Bowen, Prince Henry, Sunflower, City of Harlem …
We are distracted by varieties, and meanwhile our sprout in a pot is gaining strength. As soon as it stretches 7-8 cm, the shelter (our plastic bag) will need to be removed and the pot placed on the windowsill. Before the buds of the plant bloom, it is necessary to water and spray the air around with a spray bottle. Fertilization time begins immediately after blooming flowers to extend their bright and fragrant period of life. A mixture of mineral-organic fertilizers should be immediately applied to the soil. Fertilizers can be applied often, at least every week, this will not destroy the plant, but only increase flowering. By the way, on good soil and in ideal conditions, it can last up to a month.
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Extending hyacinth bloom
In the final part of my story, I want to tell you about the secrets of forcing hyacinths and possible problems on the way to the cherished goal. I'll start with the first, because the world of secrets has always attracted people.
So, about 25-30 days before the expected flowering period, the pots must be placed in a greenhouse or under a supplementary lamp. There, the optimum temperature should be at the level of + 22 … + 25 o C. I have already said that the ground in pots must be watered, but this should be done only with water at room temperature.
Remember that the intensity of flowering directly depends on the amount of light around, the more the first, the more intense the second will be. Immediately after the hyacinths bloom, the temperature should be reduced to cool. Optimal for them is + 15 … + 17 o С. This will prolong their flowering.
Especially often difficulties arise for beginners. Therefore, know: if the leaves turn yellow, then most likely you are watering the plants incorrectly. And here both underfilling and overflowing can play a negative role, or maybe the flowers simply do not have enough light.
The buds do not open - this is also, most likely, due to errors during watering, and here it is not about the volume of water poured out, but about getting it on the buds - this is how the plant protects against moisture penetration into them.
If the leaves grow, but have excessive length and they are sluggish to the touch, then this is clearly due to a lack of light. They stretch out in search of its source, losing their strength.
Are the plants growing slowly? Most likely, you have come across a problem bulb, or you have not figured out the modes of its preparation during the rest period.
If there are absolutely no buds, then most likely you planted an unripe bulb, or did not observe the storage regime, allowing a strong increase in temperature, but the reason may be more banal - lack of moisture.
Ugly flowers have blossomed - for the first time this is, in general, a good result, but if you want to prevent this from happening in the future, watch the temperature changes more closely during storage.
The flowers bloom, but quickly fall off, while their bases look like rotted ones - the cause of this ailment of hyacinth is, most likely, excessive watering, as well as inappropriate conditions of detention - high humidity or stagnant moisture in the dishes, for example, if you forgot to drain the pot …
Nikolay Khromov, researcher, candidate of sciences GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurina of the Russian Agricultural Academy, Scientific Secretary of ANIRR
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
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