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Video: Decorative Vines Of The North-West Zone
"Lianas are called a large group of plants of different species, genera belonging to different families. They are united by some common structure, mainly of the stem - flexible, not able to stand upright on its own.
To rise up, the stem of the vine must have a support. clinging to it with the help of leaves, tendrils, thorns, roots and other devices, it can be held in the appropriate position."
The above quote from the book professionally defines this peculiar kind of plant. Lianas on the garden plot solve both functional tasks and aesthetic ones. With the help of large vines, you can close the buildings on the site, decorate a high fence, and make the bare wall of a high house less monotonous.
A trellis lattice entwined with a liana will help to highlight part of the site, to separate one zone from another. A gazebo, a canopy entwined with vines is a classic example of the use of these plants. As a rule, vines are plants on the edges of deciduous forests. Leafy humus is the best soil for them, but good garden soils are also acceptable.
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Lianas are hygrophilous plants. They form a large vegetative mass and consume a lot of water, especially at the beginning of the season. Perennial vines in one place can grow for 30 or more years, so the planting pit should be large enough, the soil should be rich, neutral or slightly alkaline.
In winter, the upper part of the vine is subjected to severe tests of low temperatures, wind, snow and ice. The best place for these plants is the wall of the house, temporary huts. The wood wall is warmer. The eastern and western exposure is optimal, because in winter the northern and northwestern parts of the house are most often attacked by cold winds. The southern part of the house is a warm part, but in spring it heats up a lot, cools down at night, i.e. in the spring, the vine suffers from temperature extremes.
The maximum, more than 98%, the number of lianas species grows in the tropical and subtropical zones. On the territory of the former USSR, there are about 220 species; in the temperate climate zone, their number decreases to 70 species. In this article, we will consider the most resistant vines, which over the past 30 years on my site in the Sinyavinsky swamps have shown their good performance in our difficult climate Notice
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Perennial vines with non-dying shoots
Grape maiden, five-leafed (Parthenocissus quinquefolia). Liana number one for our conditions.
Originally from North America, therefore it has no pests. It is absolutely stable. It forms a gradually woody liana up to 25 meters long. Annual growth is up to 1.5-2 meters. Suitable for decorating large volumes, walls not only on the west and east sides, but also on the northern part of buildings. Dark green foliage appears relatively late, at the beginning of June, therefore it does not suffer from frost; in autumn, red and orange colored leaves, dark blue fruits that attract birds are decorative. The plant reproduces very easily by cuttings from early spring to late summer, by layering and less often by seeds (autumn sowing, or sowing with stratification).
Liana forms a volume of green mass, which requires high-quality supports (metal wire with a diameter of 3-4 mm, thin pipes, gratings impregnated with an antiseptic). Caring for the plant consists in cleaning it after winter, in rare dressings on poorly nutritious soils. In nature, ten species of this plant are read. In amateur floriculture, grape maiden attached (Inserta) and Telman are rare. These species are less tall and require warmer locations. The stability of the Tricuspidata grape is questionable. However, I will be glad if my doubts are refuted.
True, conclusions on the stability of the culture should be drawn after 6-8 years of testing. There is no limit to the patience and idealism of amateur gardeners, so more and more often some of them try their hand at growing plants of the genus Vitis (real grapes). In nature, there are over 70 species of this genus. By the way, most of the species grows in North America. Of course, we are closer to the ancient area of Southern Europe.
You should start your search in this direction with the Amur Grape (Vitis amurensis). He has everything like a real grape - foliage, antennae, stem. The fruits are small but edible. The homeland of the plant is the Far East. The height of the vine is 20 meters. In our conditions, it reaches a smaller size and requires increased attention - a warm place, wind, wintering in a thick layer of snow. Photophilous. Garden soils with neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
The best option is to plant in a glass greenhouse or winter garden. So far, this grape has not received wide distribution. Even less common are real grape varieties, which have been successfully cultivated in Southern Europe for over 10 thousand years. However, the use of greenhouses, the selection of varieties that tolerate low temperatures, shelter for the winter, and competent pruning will allow you to get a small harvest. The grapes are propagated by cuttings-shanks, when new varieties are developed - by seeds. For garden design, these forms of grapes are not acceptable - exotic.
Actinidia. This plant came to us from the Far East. There are over 30 species in nature, most often they are found in tropical regions. In the Northwest zone, three species do relatively well.
The most famous is Actinidia colomicta. Large liana, up to 15 meters long, dioecious and monoecious plants. Male specimens are more decorative. They do not suffer much from winter frosts, but in spring they wake up very early, release leaves (this is usually the end of April). In case of frost, these leaves can be shed, which leads to a partial loss of decorative effect. This vine is very beautiful during flowering.
Small, 1-2 cm in size, bell-shaped white flowers smell nice. The fruits are edible, but small and fall off when ripe. Kiwi is the fruit of another actinidia - Chinese, which was introduced into the culture first in New Zealand, and then began to be cultivated already in Southern Europe.
Acute Actinidia (Actinidia arguta) is a larger liana - up to 25 meters long. Distributed in the Primorsky Territory, Sakhalin, Korea. The plant is dioecious. Fruits are less tasty, but edible. Actinidia polygamus is less commonly used in amateur gardening. This is a low bushy plant up to 2-3 meters high. Reproduction of all these types of lianas - by cuttings, in late May-June. General tips for growing: rich garden soil, leaf humus, good moisture.
They feel better on the western and eastern sides of the house. These lianas twine along wire, thin supports. Plants attract the attention of cats that gnaw on young shoots. It is necessary to put on a fence made of fine mesh (preferably metal) on the base of the bush, up to 1 meter high. Varietal forms of actinidia, which were bred by I.V. Michurin. This is Clara Zetkin, Dessertnaya, Pineapple. Varietal forms have larger fruits. Actinidia in general is a very ancient plant - it is a relic of the Tertiary period. It is actively used in pharmacology (actinidia tincture).
Woodlip… This is another liana native to North America and the Far East. In total, there are about 30 species in nature, most of them grow in the tropics. The name of this vine is justified. Twisting around a tree, the plant can indeed "strangle" a small mountain ash, a plum, which I observed in my garden. Climbing wood pliers (Celastrus scandens) have received the maximum distribution. Liana winds along already larger diameter supports, small trees, reaches a height of 10 meters. Flowering is not very decorative.
Long shoots, green foliage, good yellow autumn color of the plant, orange fruit color are beautiful. It reproduces very well by sowing seeds in autumn (spring - with stratification), dividing the bush, rarely by cuttings. Our inquisitive reader will find this liana in the Primorsky Victory Park, near the chess pavilion and on the Bolshoi Vaza square. By the way, you can also collect seeds there. In amateur gardens, the Far Eastern species is less common - the round-leaved wood plier. With this plant, you can close large buildings, high fences, walls of houses.
Another interesting culture is a liana from the Far East, Primorye -
Chinese Schizandra (Schizandra chinensis).The plant is widely known for its medicinal properties. Unfortunately, this culture has not become widespread in our country. This liana is thermophilic, capricious, especially at a young age. It tolerates spring frosts very badly, because the climate in the Far East is qualitatively different. There is a lot of snow, in the thickness of which subtropical crops winter well.
This shrub vine, monoecious or dioecious, requires a warm location, good humus soils, good moisture, easy shelter for the winter, especially at a young age.
In our region it is rather exotic, but some gardeners succeed in lemongrass. Seed reproduction is difficult, as the seeds quickly lose their germination. Therefore, they propagate by dividing the bushes, layering, rarely by cuttings. I think that lemongrass has no prospects in landscape design in our conditions. Amateurs will ask to continue the experiments. Let's leave the Far Eastern region for a while and turn our eyes to the Mediterranean and the Caucasus.
Read the next part. The use of vines in the garden landscape →