Table of contents:
- Instead of an epigraph
- Washing solution
- Wound healing drugs
- Draining wounds, compresses
- Painkillers and cardiac
Video: Treatment Of Wounds In Animals, Washing, Disinfectants, Suturing, Drainage
2023 Author: Sebastian Paterson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 05:47
Instead of an epigraph
On weekends, you always want to sleep. But … As usual, a phone call woke me up. Painful attempts to fall asleep again were confused with thoughts of what to choose the current topic for the January issue. Firecrackers firing? Cats overwhelmed with salads? It's late … Castration of cats? It seems a bit early … I remembered how once on the third of January I was lying on the floor in the hallway in someone else's apartment with a stranger …
He lay on his Rottweiler, trying to press him to the floor, I sewed up the cut paw, and Paris whined at the same time, tried to lick me, tore out his grasping paws from my grasping paws, splashing blood all over the hallway, and tried to crawl out from under the owner. These memories lulled me. And then, as expected, the phone rang again …
- Urgently grab everything you need, - Nastya ripped open her hand, the blood is gushing, and I don't even have iodine and bandages !!!
- Wrap the chicken from the freezer in a sheet and press it as hard as possible to the wound !!! I'll come running now!
With a bag of medicines, I burst into my friend's apartment and amid Nastya's lamentations: "Oh! Maybe not! It will hurt! Okay, but then I don't have to go to Russian?" - I put on her a single stitch and bandaged her. Well, what is this, if not a sign from above that the topic is relevant?
Snowballs, sledges, skis, snow fortresses. This is why we love winter. But, unfortunately, snow is not only fun … Sharp fragments of broken bottles are hidden under the snow. "Why exactly under the snow? - You ask. - But what about the heaps of rubbish in the grass in the summer, when people crawl out for picnics?" On this occasion, let me make one more lyrical digression.
Yes, my dears, in the summer we litter much more - we are attracted by parks, lakes, fields and forests. At any time of the day, in any more or less green place, you can find a company that eats, drinks, burns a fire and … does not bother to collect and carry away or burn garbage behind them. And this is done not only by drunken lumpen, riotous punks and unintelligent children, but quite normal, adults, otherwise they are quite adequate people … Recently, one of my acquaintances, an intelligent and interesting person, talking to me on the street, took coffee from a stall, drank and, not at all embarrassed, threw an empty glass over his shoulder … I hope that he is reading this now, and he is ashamed … However, in the summer, although there is more rubbish, but still it is mostly soft packaging from under any food and plastic bottles from under drinks, and glass beer bottles are actively disassembled by "forest orderlies"- grandmothers. In addition, in the morning the janitors go to work and in the summer they remove at least some of the garbage, while in winter during the night everything thrown over during the day is sprinkled with a beautiful, fluffy and such insidious snowball.
So, the cut paws (and at the same time the bitten sides and necks, let's talk about wounds in general). First of all, in a house where there are animals (and children), you must have a first aid kit. Let's see what comes in handy for treating wounds. Sharp scissors with blunt ends (preferably curved) - trim the hair around the wound. Do not be afraid to do it yourself, because the wound must be treated as early as possible, and it is impossible to properly wash the wound, into which dirty bloody icicles of stuck hair are climbing. It's also a good idea to have a shaving machine (not with cassettes, but with blades) - for a more complete removal of hair around the wound. Shave away from the wound.
If the wound is large and heavily contaminated, for a start it is allowed to wash it with warm water, maybe with soap. In general, a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), a solution of furacilin (1 tablet per glass of hot water), a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine are used for washing. These drugs not only wash, but also disinfect the wound. If nothing like this is at hand, but there are dry or fresh herbs (in the country, on a hike, and so on) - you can make an infusion of chamomile, St. John's wort, yarrow and other disinfecting herbs. Usually, the wounds are washed from the center to the edges, but when the purulent process is started, on the contrary, to the wound, so as not to spread the infection. If you have already called a doctor or are going to rush to the clinic, then do not be too zealous, but if for some reason the doctor is not available, try to rinse the wound like this,to remove all the dirt, splinters, and so on, without driving them deeper inside. You can use a syringe without a needle or a syringe. Visible foreign bodies can be removed with tweezers.
The simplest and most popular are alcohol solutions of iodine and brilliant green (brilliant green). They treat the skin (only skin !!!) around the wound. From veterinary drugs monclavite and sprays are widely used - terramycin, aluminum spray, septonex. I warn you right away - take care of your hands, clothes and furniture - these sprays paint everything great wherever they get. My son successfully used terramycin to paint the walls of the elevator, for which he was severely punished … If stitches are applied to the wound, they are treated with the same drugs every day. The first aid kit must contain sterile cotton wool, bandages and napkins. With their help, you will clean the wound and stop the bleeding (press the cotton-gauze swab tightly to the wound and hold as needed). Additionally, you can use ice or any frozen food from the refrigerator wrapped in a clean dry cloth. If your dog is "lucky" to cut his leg in the winter, simply pack the snow in a plastic bag.
Additional measures to stop bleeding. A solution of aminocaproic acid can be poured into the wound cavity or a piece of hemostatic sponge can be put. If the bleeding is arterial (scarlet blood, pours out in jerks), you can apply a tourniquet (special rubber or using improvised means - a bandage, belt, braid). The tourniquet is applied above the wound for 1-2 hours (in winter - half as much), if necessary, the tourniquet is removed for a few minutes and applied again for 15 minutes. Remove the tourniquet slowly. If necessary, the doctor will stop the bleeding with surgical methods (applying hemostatic forceps or ligatures) and prescribe hemostatic and blood-clotting drugs.
Some especially brave and risky owners are eager to suture themselves. In theory, any first-grader who sewed two pieces of fabric with an over-the-edge seam in a labor lesson can also sew up a wound. In practice, an inexperienced person can leave a foreign body in the wound, unevenly align the edges of the wound, not grab the bottom of the wound, leaving the cavity, and make many more mistakes. In any case, to apply skin sutures, you need special surgical (curved, triangular in section) needles, a needle holder (holding the needle in your hand, you simply cannot pierce the skin), surgical forceps, special sterile silk or other suture material. I don't think these are the essentials in the layman's first aid kit …
If the wound is fresh and clean, it is sutured completely, and it heals by primary intention - the walls of the wound are tightly pressed against each other, quickly stick together and grow to each other. No additional manipulations, except for daily treatment with iodine or other disinfectant, are required before removing the stitches. The stitches are removed after 7-10-14 days (depending on the number of stitches and tissue mobility in the area of injury). If the doctor has explained how to do this correctly, in case of successful healing, the owners can remove them themselves with scissors or a blade.
In some cases, an "old" wound (more than a day) can be "refreshed" and sewn up like a fresh one. In other cases (especially bite wounds and wounds complicated by a purulent infection), they are left to heal partially or completely open. Such wounds heal by secondary intention - new small cells - granulations - grow from the depths of the wound and gradually occupy the entire wound cavity. At the same time, the rim of the epithelium around the wound crawls onto it, gradually lining all the granulations. Such wounds take longer to heal, leave larger scars, and are often accompanied by various complications, however, if such a wound is completely sewn up, a purulent cavity will form and the complications will be more severe. Of particular danger are deep wounds with a small entrance hole (stabbed and bitten) - the wound itself quickly heals,and an extensive purulent process develops inside. Having no way out, pus spreads further and further through the tissues.
Wound healing drugs
On a clean open wound, wound healing ointments or gels are applied - solcoseryl, actovegin, vinylin, which promote the growth of granulation. Panthenol spray works great. The veterinary preparation Sangel, which contains an antiseptic - catapol, has a good wound healing and disinfecting effect. Antimicrobial drugs. Purulent wounds are treated with ointments containing antibiotics - levomecol, tetracycline and others. Iruxol stands apart - this drug contains not only an antibiotic, but also an enzyme that melts dead tissue and cleans the wound. With extensive purulent lesions, the enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin and chymopsin can be applied externally (sterile napkins are moistened with drugs diluted in a 0.25% solution of novocaine and applied to the wound surface for 8 hours or more).
Draining wounds, compresses
If the wound hole is small and the cavity is deep, drainage is placed to drain pus and prevent the wound hole from tightening too quickly. Usually this is either a piece of bandage or a special tube that the doctor inserts into the wound cavity. The drainage can be soaked with dioxidine or good old Vishnevsky ointment. Compresses with retracting solutions are also made. It can be simple (for a glass of water - 1 teaspoon of salt) or a complex hypertonic solution (for a glass of water - 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 teaspoon of soda, 2 tablets of furacilin and 30 ml of alcohol or 60 ml of vodka). If the narrow wound hole is still tightened, but purulent inflammation continues inside, edema develops, the doctor will have to do blockades with antibiotics, open and re-treat the wound. In this case, in addition to blockades,Compresses with Dimexide give excellent results. It is diluted with warm water in the following proportion: for 1 part of Dimexide - 3-5 parts of water (any measure can be a part - a teaspoon, a medicine beaker, a glass, and so on), moisten a piece of gauze, put on the inflamed area, cover with paper for compresses, tracing paper or just a piece of polyethylene and bandaged for 30 minutes or more. This is done 2-4 times a day. Dimexide penetrates deeply into the tissues, relieves pain, warms up, has an antiseptic effect, and, in addition, pulls all the substances dissolved in it (for example, antibiotics). In the absence of anything better (in summer cottage conditions), you can recall grandmother's recipes (and scientifically - herbal medicine) and attach a leaf of aloe (agave) cut along the length, steamed gruel from St. John's wort, chamomile,sage or plantain leaves.
Painkillers and cardiac
Many owners are interested in whether it is necessary to give the wounded animal pain relievers, heart, hemostatic drugs? Giving analgin, baralgin and other general painkillers will not give a special result, and local anesthesia, which the doctor will do (novocaine blockade), has a short-term effect. It is better to stop bleeding using the methods described above (cold, tamponation, tight bandage). If the animal has low blood clotting, the attending physician will prescribe the necessary drugs himself. An agitated, restless animal can be given a sweetened infusion of motherwort, mint, valocordin or corvalol in sweet water, from veterinary drugs - "Cat Bayun" or "Antistress". Calm the animal, pet it, put it in a dark, cozy place.
Any wound should be kept closed (bandaged) to prevent the animal from licking or scratching. With a rough tongue, animals easily rip off the seams, increase the wound surface, and introduce an infection. During healing by secondary intention, constant anxiety of the wound surface disrupts the growth of granulations, and recovery is significantly slowed down. By the way, a warning for the owners: the granulations are normally covered with wound exudate: a cloudy, viscous, straw-colored or whitish liquid, which, when dry, forms a crust. You cannot wash off this liquid and peel off the crusts! Wound exudate protects new growing cells from microflora and mechanical damage. Bandaging begins from the narrowest point above the wound, bandage is quite tight (especially when bleeding), always to the tips of the fingers, otherwise edema will develop below the bandage. For a walk, you must put on a special protective shoe or at least a dense plastic bag on the wounded limb. It is better to cover wounds on the body with a blanket or overalls (if the dog strips off the bandages, the blanket must be worn without removing it).
I was finishing the article, sitting at work, wondering what to finish … And then a woman with a twisted face flew in to us: “We were going to you for vitamins, and the dog cut his leg! I don’t know what to do, the blood is flowing, I have them two, where to rush, what to do with the second … A pharmacy is not a clinic, but … Eh, what was to be done? Fortunately, the partner had with them (which only is not in handbags!) Needles, suture material, scissors, tweezers, and we have a sufficient assortment of medicines. Sewn up, standing in spicy poses on the floor. Only s-s-s-s … I didn't tell you that!
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