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Video: Vitamin Preparations For The Winter
What vitamins are stored in preparations for the winter
Trying to prepare more canned vegetables and fruit, we want to provide ourselves with tasty and healthy, vitamin-rich foods for the winter. Are vitamins well preserved when canning? What types of canned food contain the most vitamins? What else is useful, besides vitamins, is contained in the vegetable marinades and fruit compotes we have provided?
The most unstable of all is vitamin C. Even with proper canning, heat sterilization loses 30 to 70 percent of its initial amount. In the production of compotes, the loss of vitamin C is 35-40 percent on average. Losses during the preparation of marinades increase to 50-55 percent, since part of the vitamin goes into the filling, which, as a rule, is not consumed in food.
The content of vitamin C, as well as other vitamins in various fruit, berry and vegetable crops varies widely, therefore canned foods from them differ significantly in their vitamin value.
Among fruit and berry compotes, the most useful, of course, is black currant compote. Blackcurrant significantly surpasses almost all fruits, berries and vegetables in the amount of vitamin C. At the same time, blackcurrant berries contain a substance that prevents its destruction during heat sterilization of compotes and during storage.
The second place is occupied by strawberries (4-5 times less than in black currants). Then there are red currants, raspberries and gooseberries (8-10 times less), and in last place - apples and plums (15-20 times less). Of course, this is only an approximate ratio. The amount of vitamin C in compotes will largely depend on the variety (for example, Antonovka stands out among apple varieties with a high vitamin C content) and growing conditions, on compliance with canning rules, on the degree of filling the jars with fruits or berries and on the concentration of sugar syrup (with a large amount of sugar vitamin C is destroyed to a lesser extent).
The maximum content of vitamin C in blackcurrant compotes is 80-100 mg per 100 g of product. This corresponds to the daily requirement of an adult. In apple compote, the maximum possible amount is only 2-3 mg per 100 g.
The biological value of stewed black currant is very high also because it is extremely rich in vitamin P. The main role of this vitamin is that it has a capillary-strengthening effect and reduces the permeability of the vascular walls. There is a close connection between the action of vitamins C and P: if one of them is deficient, the action of the other is weakened. In sterilized compotes, vitamin P is well preserved, and its content does not decrease during long-term storage.
Fruits and berries contain significantly more vitamin P than most vegetables. In addition to black currant, gooseberries and red currants (250-450 mg per 100 g) are distinguished by a high content of vitamin P. In apples, its amount is less - 70-100 mg per 100 g. The daily human need for vitamin P is 35 mg. Blackcurrant compote contains 200-400 mg per 100 g of vitamin R.
It is well preserved during heat sterilization and carotene (up to 80-90 percent). But its content in most of the fruits and berries of our region is small (with the exception of sea buckthorn and mountain ash). It should be noted, however, that red and black currants, gooseberries and raspberries contain several times more carotene than apples or strawberries.
To increase the vitamin value of apple compote, which is not rich in vitamins, you can add chokeberry berries to it. Along with carotene, it also contains a lot of vitamin P and is not inferior in its amount even to black currant.
Fruits, berries and vegetables are not only a "storehouse of vitamins", but also almost the entire periodic table. They are important suppliers of minerals for the human body. When canning, as well as when storing fresh, their number practically does not change. Of all minerals, fruits and vegetables contain the most potassium., which is necessary to regulate water metabolism in the body. Black currants stand out with an increased potassium content among fruits and berries, followed by red currants, gooseberries and apples, the least potassium is found in strawberries. But in strawberries (as well as raspberries and black chokeberries) there is a lot of iron. Iron is the most important hematopoietic element that is part of hemoglobin, with a lack of it, anemia develops. True, black currant again remains in first place in terms of iron content.
Fruit compotes and the organic acids contained in them are useful, which have a beneficial effect on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and other body systems. Most fruits and berries are dominated by malic acid, currants, as well as citrus fruits - citric acid.
The value of fruits, berries, vegetables and canned food from them also lies in the fact that they serve as sources of pectin substances, which play an important role in nutrition as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent. They improve digestion, prevent the absorption of harmful substances, protect the gastric mucosa from damage. The ability of pectin substances to bind and remove heavy and radioactive metals from the body is of great importance. Apples, black and red currants, plums, gooseberries are especially rich in pectin substances.